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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 5 | Pages 207 - 215
1 May 2019
Key S Scott G Stammers JG Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


The medially spherical GMK Sphere (Medacta International AG, Castel San Pietro, Switzerland) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was previously shown to accommodate lateral rollback while pivoting around a stable medial compartment, aiming to replicate native knee kinematics in which some coronal laxity, especially laterally, is also present. We assess coronal plane kinematics of the GMK Sphere and explore the occurrence and pattern of articular separation during static and dynamic activities.


Using pulsed fluoroscopy and image matching, the coronal kinematics and articular surface separation of 16 well-functioning TKAs were studied during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing, static, and dynamic activities. The closest distances between the modelled articular surfaces were examined with respect to knee position, and proportions of joint poses exhibiting separation were computed.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 3 | Pages 80 - 86
1 Mar 2016
Scott G Imam MA Eifert A Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


Throughout the 20th Century, it has been postulated that the knee moves on the basis of a four-bar link mechanism composed of the cruciate ligaments, the femur and the tibia. As a consequence, the femur has been thought to roll back with flexion, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prostheses have been designed on this basis. Recent work, however, has proposed that at a position of between 0° and 120° the medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly whereas the lateral femoral condyle tends, but is not obliged, to roll back – a combination of movements which equates to tibial internal/ femoral external rotation with flexion. The aim of this paper was to assess if the articular geometry of the GMK Sphere TKA could recreate the natural knee movements in situ/in vivo.


The pattern of knee movement was studied in 15 patients (six male: nine female; one male with bilateral TKAs) with 16 GMK Sphere implants, at a mean age of 66 years (53 to 76) with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2 (20 to 35). The motions of all 16 knees were observed using pulsed fluoroscopy during a number of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing static and dynamic activities.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 1, Issue 2 | Pages 34 - 34
1 Apr 2012
Bardakos NV Freeman MAR

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 4 | Pages 480 - 485
1 Apr 2010
Mannan K Freeman MAR Scott G

The outcome at ten years of 100 Freeman hip stems (Finsbury Orthopaedics, Leatherhead, United Kingdom) retaining the neck with a proximal hydroxyapatite coating in a series of 52 men (six bilateral) and 40 women (two bilateral), has been described previously. None required revision for aseptic loosening. We have extended the follow-up to 20 years with a minimum of 17 years. The mean age of the patients at total hip replacement was 58.9 years (19 to 84).

Six patients were lost to follow-up, but were included up to their last clinical review. A total of 22 patients (22 hips) had died, all from causes unrelated to their surgery. There have been 43 re-operations for failure of the acetabular component. However, in 38 of these the stem was not revised since it remained stable and there was no associated osteolysis. Two of the revisions were for damage to the trunnion after fracture of a modular ceramic head, and in another two, removal of the femoral component was because of the preference of the surgeon. In all cases the femoral component was well fixed, but could be extracted at the time of acetabular revision. In one case both components were revised for deep infection. There has been one case of aseptic loosening of the stem which occurred at 14 years. This stem had migrated distally by 7.6 mm in ten years and 8.4 mm at the time of revision at which stage it was found to be rotationally loose. With hindsight this component had been undersized at implantation.

The survivorship for the stem at 17 years with aseptic loosening as the endpoint was 98.6% (95% confidence interval 95.9 to 100) when 62 hips were at risk. All remaining stems had a satisfactory clinical and radiological outcome. The Freeman proximally hydroxyapatite-coated femoral component is therefore a dependable implant and its continued use can be recommended.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 830 - 834
1 Jun 2009
Pinskerova V Samuelson KM Stammers J Maruthainar K Sosna A Freeman MAR

There has been only one limited report dating from 1941 using dissection which has described the tibiofemoral joint between 120° and 160° of flexion despite the relevance of this arc to total knee replacement. We now provide a full description having examined one living and eight cadaver knees using MRI, dissection and previously published cryosections in one knee.

In the range of flexion from 120° to 160° the flexion facet centre of the medial femoral condyle moves back 5 mm and rises up on to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. At 160° the posterior horn is compressed in a synovial recess between the femoral cortex and the tibia. This limits flexion. The lateral femoral condyle also rolls back with the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus moving with the condyle. Both move down over the posterior tibia at 160° of flexion.

Neither the events between 120° and 160° nor the anatomy at 160° could result from a continuation of the kinematics up to 120°. Therefore hyperflexion is a separate arc. The anatomical and functional features of this arc suggest that it would be difficult to design an implant for total knee replacement giving physiological movement from 0° to 160°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 3 | Pages 330 - 333
1 Mar 2008
Lankester BJA Cottam HL Pinskerova V Eldridge JDJ Freeman MAR

From a search of MRI reports on knees, 20 patients were identified with evidence of early anteromedial osteoarthritis without any erosion of bone and a control group of patients had an acute rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. The angle formed between the extension and flexion facets of the tibia, which is known as the extension facet angle, was measured on a sagittal image at the middle of the medial femoral condyle.

The mean extension facet angle in the control group was 14° (3° to 25°) and was unrelated to age (Spearman’s rank coefficient, p = 0.30, r = 0.13). The mean extension facet angle in individuals with MRI evidence of early anteromedial osteoarthritis was 19° (13° to 26°, SD 4°). This difference was significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.001).

A wide variation in the extension facet angle was found in the normal control knees and an association between an increased extension facet angle and MRI evidence of early anteromedial osteoarthritis. Although a causal link has not been demonstrated, we postulate that a steeper extension facet angle might increase the duration of loading on the extension facet during the stance phase of gait, and that this might initiate failure of the articular cartilage.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 6 | Pages 925 - 931
1 Aug 2004
Pinskerova V Johal P Nakagawa S Sosna A Williams A Gedroyc W Freeman MAR

MRI studies of the knee were performed at intervals between full extension and 120° of flexion in six cadavers and also non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing in five volunteers. At each interval sagittal images were obtained through both compartments on which the position of the femoral condyle, identified by the centre of its posterior circular surface which is termed the flexion facet centre (FFC), and the point of closest approximation between the femoral and tibial subchondral plates, the contact point (CP), were identified relative to the posterior tibial cortex.

The movements of the CP and FFC were essentially the same in the three groups but in all three the medial differed from the lateral compartment and the movement of the FFC differed from that of the CP. Medially from 30° to 120° the FFC and CP coincided and did not move anteroposteriorly. From 30° to 0° the anteroposterior position of the FFC remained unchanged but the CP moved forwards by about 15 mm. Laterally, the FFC and the CP moved backwards together by about 15 mm from 20° to 120°. From 20° to full extension both the FFC and CP moved forwards, but the latter moved more than the former. The differences between the movements of the FFC and the CP could be explained by the sagittal shapes of the bones, especially anteriorly.

The term ‘roll-back’ can be applied to solid bodies, e.g. the condyles, but not to areas. The lateral femoral condyle does roll-back with flexion but the medial does not, i.e. the femur rotates externally around a medial centre. By contrast, both the medial and lateral contact points move back, roughly in parallel, from 0° to 120° but they cannot ‘roll’.

Femoral roll-back with flexion, usually imagined as backward rolling of both condyles, does not occur.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 3 | Pages 450 - 456
1 Apr 2004
Nakagawa S Johal P Pinskerova V Komatsu T Sosna A Williams A Freeman MAR

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was imaged by MRI throughout flexion in neutral tibial rotation in six cadaver knees, which were also dissected, and in 20 unloaded and 13 loaded living (squatting) knees. The appearance of the ligament was the same in all three groups. In extension the ligament is curved concave-forwards. It is straight, fully out-to-length and approaching vertical from 60° to 120°, and curves convex-forwards over the roof of the intercondylar notch in full flexion. Throughout flexion the length of the ligament does not change, but the separations of its attachments do.

We conclude that the PCL is not loaded in the unloaded cadaver knee and therefore, since its appearance in all three groups is the same, that it is also unloaded in the living knee during flexion. The posterior fibres may be an exception in hyperextension, probably being loaded either because of posterior femoral lift-off or because of the forward curvature of the PCL. These conclusions relate only to everyday life: none may be drawn with regard to more strenuous activities such as sport or in trauma.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 7 | Pages 946 - 949
1 Sep 2002
Blunn G del Preva EMB Costa L Fisher J Freeman MAR

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 4 | Pages 550 - 555
1 May 2002
Iwaki H Scott G Freeman MAR

We studied 185 total hip replacements and related the identification of radiolucent lines (RLLs) at two years to the later development of lytic lesions and loosening. Linear polyethylene wear was also measured.

RLLs appeared in 34 hips at a mean of 2.0 years after operation, and lytic lesions in ten hips at 5.7 years. Of 151 THRs without RLLs there was neither rapid migration nor loosening and only one developed a possible lytic lesion. Of 23 hips with non-progressive RLLs there was neither rapid migration nor loosening, but six developed a lytic lesion. By contrast, 11 THRs with progressive RLLs migrated rapidly and seven developed a lytic lesion. Six THRs with progressive RLLs failed. The wear rates were the same in all groups, although limited numbers were available for study.

If the surgeon achieves secure initial fixation as shown by slow or no migration and no RLLs during the first two years, it is likely that no lytic lesions will develop by five years or aseptic loosening by ten years. If an imperfect, but adequate, interface is achieved, as shown by slow migration and non-progressive RLLs lytic lesions adjacent to the RLLs may develop by five years, but aseptic loosening will be unlikely at ten. Insecure initial fixation, as shown by more rapid migration and progressive RLLs at two years, is likely to lead to the formation of lytic lesions at five years and loosening at ten. The outcome after THR is therefore determined at the initial operation and may be predicted at two years. The presence of lytic lesions reflects soft tissue at the interface as shown by the RLLs which accompany and promote loosening but, in our study, did not cause it.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1189 - 1195
1 Nov 2000
Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In six unloaded cadaver knees we used MRI to determine the shapes of the articular surfaces and their relative movements. These were confirmed by dissection.

Medially, the femoral condyle in sagittal section is composed of the arcs of two circles and that of the tibia of two angled flats. The anterior facets articulate in extension. At about 20° the femur ‘rocks’ to articulate through the posterior facets. The medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly with flexion to 110°.

Laterally, the femoral condyle is composed entirely, or almost entirely, of a single circular facet similar in radius and arc to the posterior medial facet. The tibia is roughly flat. The femur tends to roll backwards with flexion.

The combination during flexion of no antero-posterior movement medially (i.e., sliding) and backward rolling (combined with sliding) laterally equates to internal rotation of the tibia around a medial axis with flexion. About 5° of this rotation may be obligatory from 0° to 10° flexion; thereafter little rotation occurs to at least 45°. Total rotation at 110° is about 20°, most if not all of which can be suppressed by applying external rotation to the tibia at 90°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1196 - 1198
1 Nov 2000
Hill PF Vedi V Williams A Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In 13 unloaded living knees we confirmed the findings previously obtained in the unloaded cadaver knee during flexion and external rotation/internal rotation using MRI. In seven loaded living knees with the subjects squatting, the relative tibiofemoral movements were similar to those in the unloaded knee except that the medial femoral condyle tended to move about 4 mm forwards with flexion. Four of the seven loaded knees were studied during flexion in external and internal rotation. As predicted, flexion (squatting) with the tibia in external rotation suppressed the internal rotation of the tibia which had been observed during unloaded flexion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1199 - 1200
1 Nov 2000
Nakagawa S Kadoya Y Todo S Kobayashi A Sakamoto H Freeman MAR Yamano Y

We studied active flexion from 90° to 133° and passive flexion to 162° using MRI in 20 unloaded knees in Japanese subjects. Flexion over this arc is accompanied by backward movement of the medial femoral condyle of 4.0 mm and by backward movement laterally of 15 mm, i.e., by internal rotation of the tibia. At 162° the lateral femoral condyle lies posterior to the tibia.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1100 - 1102
1 Nov 2000
Pinskerova V Maquet P Freeman MAR

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1201 - 1203
1 Nov 2000
Karrholm J Brandsson S Freeman MAR

We studied the knees of 11 volunteers using RSA during a step-up exercise requiring extension while weight-bearing from 50° to 0°. The findings on weight-bearing flexion with and without external rotation of the tibia based on MRI were confirmed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 4 | Pages 506 - 507
1 May 2000
Robertsson O Scott G Freeman MAR

We report a ten-year rate of survival of 96% for the cemented Freeman-Samuelson knee arthroplasty in patients from the Swedish Knee Registry and the Royal London Hospital with revision for aseptic loosening as the criterion for failure.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 5 | Pages 844 - 848
1 Sep 1997
Kobayashi A Freeman MAR Bonfield W Kadoya Y Yamac T Al-Saffar N Scott G Revell PA

Our aim was to analyse the influence of the size, shape and number of particles on the pathogenesis of osteolysis. We obtained peri-implant tissues from 18 patients having revision surgery for aseptically loosened Freeman total knee replacements (10), Charnley total hip replacements (3) and Imperial College/London Hospital double-cup surface hip replacements (5). The size and shape of the polyethylene particles were characterised using SEM and their concentration was calculated. The results were analysed with reference to the presence of radiological osteolysis.

The concentration of polyethylene particles in 6 areas with osteolysis was significantly higher than that in 12 areas without osteolysis. There were no significant differences between the size and shape of the particles in these two groups.

We conclude that the most critical factor in the pathogenesis of osteolysis is the concentration of polyethylene particles accumulated in the tissue.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 583 - 589
1 Jul 1997
Kobayashi A Donnelly WJ Scott G Freeman MAR

We reviewed a consecutive series of 527 uninfected hip replacements in patients resident in the UK which had been implanted from 1981 to 1993. All had the same basic design of femoral prosthesis, but four fixation techniques had been used: two press-fit, one HA-coated and one cemented. Review and radiography were planned prospectively. For assessment the components were retrospectively placed into two groups: those which had failed from two years onwards by aseptic femoral loosening and those in which the femoral component had survived without revision or recommendation for revision.

All available radiographs in both groups were measured to determine vertical migration and examined by two observers to agree the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs), lytic lesions, resorption of the neck, proximal osteopenia and distal intramedullary and distal subperiosteal formation of new bone. We then related the presence or absence of these features and the rate of migration at two years to the outcome with regard to aseptic loosening and determined the predictive value of each of these variables.

Migration of ≥2 mm at two years, the presence of an RLL of 2 mm occupying one-third of any one zone, and subperiosteal formation of new bone at the tip of the stem were predictors of aseptic loosening after two years. There were too few lytic lesions to assess at two years, but at five years a lytic lesion ≥2 mm also predicted failure. We discuss the use of these variables as predictors of femoral aseptic loosening for groups of hips and for individual hips.

We conclude that if a group of about 50 total hip replacements, perhaps with a new design of femoral stem, were studied in this way at two years, a mean migration of < 0.4 mm and an incidence of < 10% of RLLs of 2 mm in any one zone would predict 95% survival at ten years.

For an individual prosthesis, migration of < 2 mm and the absence of an RLL of ≤2 mm at two years predict a 6% chance of revision over approximately ten years. If either 2 mm of migration or an RLL of 2 mm is present, the chances of revision rise to 27%, and if both radiological signs are present they are 50%. If at five years a lytic lesion has developed, whatever the situation at two years, there is approximately a 50% chance of failure in the following five years.

Our findings suggest that replacements using a limited number of any new design of femoral prosthesis should be screened radiologically at two years before they are generally introduced. We also suggest that radiographs of individual patients at two years and perhaps at five years should be studied to help to decide whether or not the patient should remain under close review or be discharged from specialist follow-up.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 3 | Pages 351 - 360
1 May 1997
Donnelly WJ Kobayashi A Freeman MAR Chin TW Yeo H West M Scott G

We compared the radiological appearances and survival of four methods of fixation of a femoral stem in 538 hips after follow-up for five or ten years. The fixation groups were: 1) press-fit shot-blasted smooth Ti-Al-V stem; 2) press-fit shot-blasted proximally ridged stem; 3) proximal hydroxyapatite (HA) coating; and 4) cementing.

Survival analysis at five to ten years showed better results in the HA-coated (100% at five to six years) and cemented stems (100% at 5 to 6 years) than in the two press-fit groups. There was a higher mean rate of migration in the smooth and ridged Ti-Al-V shot-blasted press-fit groups (0.8 mm/year and 0.6 mm/year, respectively) when compared with the HA-coated and cemented prostheses (both 0.3 mm/year). More radiolucent lines and osteolytic lesions were seen in the press-fit groups than in either the HA-coated or cemented implants, with a trend for a lower incidence of both in the HA compared with the cemented group. Proximal osteopenia increased in the press-fit and cemented prostheses with time, but did not do so in the HA group. There was a higher incidence of resorption of the femoral neck with time in the cemented group than in the other three.

We conclude that the HA and the cemented interfaces both provide secure fixation with a trend in favour of HA. The cemented prosthesis meets the suggested National Institutes of Health definition of ‘efficacious’ at ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 2 | Pages 342 - 343
1 Mar 1997