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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 5 | Pages 812 - 814
1 Sep 1997
Boos N Goytan M Fraser R Aebi M

We report an unusual presentation of a solitary plasma-cell myeloma of the spine in an adolescent patient. Our case indicates the need to consider plasma-cell myeloma as a differential diagnosis even in younger patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 5 | Pages 733 - 735
1 Sep 1995
Fraser R Dickens D Cole W

We report the results of medial physeal stapling in 16 knees with primary genu valgum and 27 with secondary genu valgum. In the primary group, stapling was undertaken at a mean chronological age of 12 years in girls and 13 years in boys. The medial femoral physis was stapled in ten knees and the medial femoral and tibial physes in six knees. At skeletal maturity, all patients had excellent or good leg alignment. Secondary genu valgum is due to skeletal dysplasia, haematological or endocrine disorders, or to juvenile chronic arthritis. Stapling was at a mean chronological age of 11 years in girls and 14 years in boys. The medial femoral physis was stapled in 13 knees, the medial tibial physis in three and both in 11 knees. At skeletal maturity, 85% had excellent or good leg alignment, and correction had occurred within one year. Two of the poor results were due to staple extrusion from osteoporotic bone, and two to overcorrection. Rebound growth was minimal and unpredictable after the removal of staples. Medial physeal stapling is a suitable method of treatment for both primary and secondary genu valgum in late childhood and in adolescence. At least one year of knee growth is required to achieve correction, and care is needed to avoid overcorrection of the secondary genu valgum.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 4 | Pages 615 - 619
1 Jul 1995
Fraser R Bourke H Broughton N Menelaus M

We reviewed 16 patients with spina bifida and unilateral dislocation of the hip at an average age of 17 years. Nine had a high neurological level (thoracic to L3) and seven a low lesion (L4 to sacral). We assessed the influence of unilateral dislocation of the hip on leg-length discrepancy, hip pain, hip stiffness and pressure sores of the ischial tuberosity. In non-walking patients with high-level lesions, unilateral dislocation gave little functional disability and did not appear to require reduction. In walking patients with low-level lesions, leg-length discrepancy led to a poor gait and functional problems which could be prevented by reduction of the dislocation. In all patients with low lesions, surgery was successful in maintaining reduction; in two of five patients with high lesions it was unsuccessful.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 3 | Pages 396 - 399
1 May 1995
Fraser R Menelaus M Williams P Cole W

We studied the long-term results of the Miller operation at a mean age of 13 years in 22 patients (38 feet) with persistently symptomatic mobile flat feet associated with an isolated naviculocuneiform break. At a mean of 12 years (3 to 27) after surgery, 84% of the feet had a satisfactory clinical result. We conclude that the Miller operation is a useful procedure for adolescent patients with persistently symptomatic flat feet with an isolated break at the naviculocuneiform joint.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 3 | Pages 495 - 497
1 May 1993
Fraser R Menelaus M

We reviewed 20 patients with spina bifida who had had surgical management of tibial torsion. Eight had had bilateral procedures and 12 a unilateral procedure, giving a total of 28 limbs for analysis. We performed closed osteoclasis on seven limbs and tibial osteotomy on 21. In the closed osteoclasis group six limbs (85%) had a good result after an average follow-up of nine years (2 to 22). All limbs developed postoperative anteromedial bowing of the tibia which later remodelled. In the tibial osteotomy group 19 (90%) had a good result. The average follow-up was nine years (2 to 28). Complications occurred in seven limbs (33%). We recommend closed osteoclasis of the tibia for the young patient with spina bifida in whom walking is impeded by excessive internal tibial torsion, and supramalleolar tibial osteotomy in the older patient with excessive external tibial torsion and a planovalgus foot.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 6 | Pages 929 - 930
1 Nov 1992
Fraser R Cole W

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 5 | Pages 678 - 682
1 Sep 1992
Osti O Vernon-Roberts B Moore R Fraser R

We studied 135 lumbar discs from 27 spines removed post-mortem from subjects of an average age of 31.5 years. Defects of the annulus fibrosus were classified as peripheral, circumferential or radiating; the nucleus pulposus as normal, moderately or severely degenerate. Peripheral tears were more frequent in the anterior annulus, except in the L5-S1 disc. Circumferential tears were equally distributed between the anterior and the posterior annulus. Almost all the radiating tears were in the posterior annulus, and closely related to the presence of severe nuclear degeneration. Histology suggested that peripheral tears were due to trauma rather than biochemical degradation, and that they developed independently of nuclear degeneration. The association of peripheral annular lesions with low back pain is uncertain but our study suggests that they may have a role in the pathogenesis of discogenic pain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 3 | Pages 431 - 435
1 May 1992
Osti O Fraser R

We attempted to correlate the findings of MRI and discography in patients with low back pain, examining 108 lumbar intervertebral discs in 33 consecutive patients. MRI results were assessed from the intensity and shape of the signal obtained from the central part of the disc. Discography was classified according to the pattern of contrast material, the pressure accepted and the pain reproduced. All discs which were abnormal on MRI had altered patterns on discography, but 18 of the 60 discs with normal MRI had abnormal discograms. Of 39 asymptomatic discs, 33 had normal MRI signals and 24 had normal discograms. None of the 15 discs showing severe degeneration on MRI sustained high levels of intradiscal pressure, but only six of the 60 discs giving normal MRI had low pressure. With current techniques, discography is more accurate than MRI for the detection of annular pathology: a normal MRI does not exclude significant changes in the peripheral structure of the intervertebral disc which can produce low back pain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 1 | Pages 143 - 146
1 Jan 1992
Fraser R Hoffman E Sparks L Buccimazza S

We reviewed 55 patients with mid-lumbar myelomeningocele (L3 and L4) first seen over a 17-year period from 1970 to 1986 and followed up for an average of ten years. We assessed a number of factors which might affect hip stability and ability to walk, recording the natural history of clinical and radiological hip deformity. Two-thirds of the hips had become dislocated or subluxed by the end of the first year of life, involving 86% of hips in patients with an L3 level and 45% of those with an L4 level. All the hips that developed instability secondary to muscle imbalance did so within the first year. The neurological level was the most significant determinant of walking ability: all patients with L4 neurological levels could walk but only one-third of those with L3 lesions could do so. Hip stability, intelligence quotient and fixed deformity did not influence walking ability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 6 | Pages 994 - 997
1 Nov 1991
Fraser R Hoffman E

We reviewed our experience of tibialis anterior transfer and anterior release for calcaneus deformity in 46 feet of 26 ambulant patients with myelomeningocele. At an average follow-up of 8.4 years (2 to 17.6) there were 89% who had satisfactory results; 64% of the patients having tibialis anterior transfers were able to stand on their toes. Hip abductor power was a good predictor of a functional transfer. Pre-operative trophic ulceration of the heel increased from 3.2% to 33% if surgery was delayed. Secondary deformities, two-thirds of them into valgus, developed in 76% of feet.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 5 | Pages 914 - 916
1 Sep 1990
Gunzburg R Fraser R Fraser G

We report the cases of teenage twin girls presenting within months of each other with severe symptoms from lumbosacral disc prolapses, requiring laminectomy in one and chemonucleolysis in the other. CT scans showed similarities in spinal configuration, including the presence of disc bulges at the L4-5 level. This suggests a strong hereditary factor in prolapse of intervertebral discs, but a review of the literature showed little information on that aspect.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 2 | Pages 271 - 274
1 Mar 1990
Osti O Fraser R Vernon-Roberts B

Discitis after discography is due to bacterial penetration into the intervertebral disc by a contaminated needle and has an incidence of 1% to 4%. We have examined the prophylactic role of cephazolin administered at the time of discography. An experimental study in sheep using radiographic contrast containing Staphylococcus epidermidis showed that either adding the antibiotic to the intradiscal suspension or giving it intravenously 30 minutes before intradiscal inoculation of bacteria prevented any radiographic, macroscopic or histological signs of discitis; all the intervertebral disc cultures were negative. In a prospective clinical study of 127 consecutive patients having lumbar discography, the injected contrast contained cephazolin 1 mg per ml. None of the patients developed clinical or radiographic signs of discitis. We recommend the use of a suitable broad spectrum antibiotic in a single prophylactic dose whenever the intervertebral disc is entered.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 2 | Pages 275 - 282
1 Mar 1989
Ostl O Fraser R Griffiths E

We compared retrospectively consecutive series of patients with cervical dislocation treated at two Australian centres. In Perth, 82 patients were treated by closed reduction and postural nursing. In Adelaide, 85 patients had closed reduction and early surgical stabilisation by interbody fusion. There were 46 bilateral dislocations, 101 unilateral dislocations, and 20 anterior subluxations. On admission 30 patients had complete tetraplegia, 17 incomplete tetraplegia, and 120 had minimal or no neurological loss. Our results indicated that closed manipulation under general anaesthesia is a safe and effective means of reduction in the acute stage. There was a high mortality rate for acute surgery in patients with complete tetraplegia. Early surgical stabilisation by dowel fusion reduced bed and hospital stay in patients with no neurological loss, but seemed to impair neurological recovery in patients with a neurological deficit on admission. Conservative management after reduction of bilateral dislocation or anterior subluxation led to a higher incidence of instability in patients with minimal or no neurological loss; in such cases surgery to stabilise the injured segment is indicated.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 1 | Pages 26 - 35
1 Jan 1987
Fraser R Osti O Vernon-Roberts B

Infection after intradiscal injections has been recognised as a distinct entity, but discitis after discography has often been attributed to an aseptic process or a chemical reaction to the contrast material. We examined the hypothesis that discitis after discography is always due to infection, and report a clinical review and an experimental study. Part I. We reviewed the case records and radiographs of 432 patients who had undergone lumbar discography. When an 18-gauge needle without a stilette had been used, discitis was diagnosed in 2.7% of 222 patients but stiletted needles and a two-needle technique at each level reduced the incidence to 0.7%. Seven patients with discitis after discography had undergone anterior discectomy and fusion; in them the histopathological findings were of a chronic inflammatory response. Bacteria were isolated from the discs of three of the four patients who had open biopsy less than six weeks from the time of discography. These findings suggest that bacteria were initiators rather than promoters of the response. Part II. Multiple level lumbar discography was carried out in mature sheep, injecting contrast material with or without various concentrations of bacteria. Radiographs were taken and the discs and end-plates were examined histologically and cultured for bacteria at intervals after injection. None of the controls showed any evidence of discitis but all sheep injected with bacteria had typical radiological and histopathological changes by six weeks, though cultures were almost all negative. However, at one and two weeks after injection, but usually not after three weeks, bacteria could be isolated. We suggest that all cases of discitis after discography are initiated by infection, and that a very strict aseptic technique should be used for all injections into intervertebral discs.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 64-B, Issue 1 | Pages 44 - 46
1 Feb 1982
Fraser R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 60-B, Issue 4 | Pages 510 - 515
1 Nov 1978
Fraser R Hunter G Waddell J

The hospital records of 222 cases of ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia were reviewed, and patients were grouped according to the type of fracture and the method of treatment. Thirty-five per cent of patients required late operation for delayed union or non-union, osteomyelitis, refracture and malunion, regardless of the treatment group. A disturbing factor was the 30% incidence of osteomyelitis in patients treated by fixation of both fractures, almost three times the incidence when only one fracture was fixed. A 30% incidence of delayed union or non-union occurred in patients managed conservatively. Of sixty-three patients personally examined, the worst results found were those following conservative management of both fractures. More use of rigid external fixation and of cast bracing is recommended in the management of the fractured tibia, combined with internal fixation of the femoral fracture. Examination of the knee suggested that, with ipsilateral fractures, disruption of ligaments is a common occurrence and should always be suspected.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 59-B, Issue 2 | Pages 143 - 151
1 May 1977
Fraser R Paterson D Simpson D

A retrospective survey has been made of forty children with spinal tumours. Difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis are mentioned and the value of radiological and cerebrospinal fluid investigations discussed. The major orthopaedic disabilities are spinal deformity or instability, and paraplegia. The main factor in the development of the former is the site of laminectomy: the higher the level the greater is the likelihood of deformity or instability developing. Measures to prevent this distressing complication are discussed. The role of the orthopaedic surgeon in the management of these children is emphasised.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 44-B, Issue 3 | Pages 485 - 495
1 Aug 1962
Fraser R