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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 6 | Pages 747 - 753
1 Jun 2016
Tengberg PT Foss NB Palm H Kallemose T Troelsen A


We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip.

Patients and Methods

A single-centre placebo-controlled double-blinded randomised clinical trial was performed to test the hypothesis on patients undergoing surgery for extra-capsular hip fractures. For reasons outside the control of the investigators, the trial was stopped before reaching the 120 included patients as planned in the protocol.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1053 - 1059
1 Aug 2006
Foss NB Kehlet H

Our aim was to determine the total blood loss associated with surgery for fracture of the hip and to identify risk factors for increased blood loss. We prospectively studied 546 patients with hip fracture. The total blood loss was calculated on the basis of the haemoglobin difference, the number of transfusions and the estimated blood volume. The hidden blood loss, in excess of that observed during surgery, varied from 547 ml (screws/ pins) to 1473 ml (intramedullary hip nail and screw) and was significantly associated with medical complications and increased hospital stay. The type of surgery, treatment with aspirin, intra-operative hypotension and gastro-intestinal bleeding or ulceration were all independent predictors of blood loss.

We conclude that total blood loss after surgery for hip fracture is much greater than that observed intra-operatively. Frequent post-operative measurements of haemoglobin are necessary to avoid anaemia.