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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 94 - 100
5 Feb 2024
Mancino F Kayani B Gabr A Fontalis A Plastow R Haddad FS

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common and debilitating knee injuries in professional athletes with an incidence in females up to eight-times higher than their male counterparts. ACL injuries can be career-threatening and are associated with increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in future life. The increased risk of ACL injury in females has been attributed to various anatomical, developmental, neuromuscular, and hormonal factors. Anatomical and hormonal factors have been identified and investigated as significant contributors including osseous anatomy, ligament laxity, and hamstring muscular recruitment. Postural stability and impact absorption are associated with the stabilizing effort and stress on the ACL during sport activity, increasing the risk of noncontact pivot injury. Female patients have smaller diameter hamstring autografts than males, which may predispose to increased risk of re-rupture following ACL reconstruction and to an increased risk of chondral and meniscal injuries. The addition of an extra-articular tenodesis can reduce the risk of failure; therefore, it should routinely be considered in young elite athletes. Prevention programs target key aspects of training including plyometrics, strengthening, balance, endurance and stability, and neuromuscular training, reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes by up to 90%. Sex disparities in access to training facilities may also play an important role in the risk of ACL injuries between males and females. Similarly, football boots, pitches quality, and football size and weight should be considered and tailored around females’ characteristics. Finally, high levels of personal and sport-related stress have been shown to increase the risk of ACL injury which may be related to alterations in attention and coordination, together with increased muscular tension, and compromise the return to sport after ACL injury. Further investigations are still necessary to better understand and address the risk factors involved in ACL injuries in female athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2024;5(2):94–100.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 3 - 5
1 Jan 2024
Fontalis A Haddad FS

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1244 - 1251
1 Dec 2023
Plastow R Raj RD Fontalis A Haddad FS

Injuries to the quadriceps muscle group are common in athletes performing high-speed running and kicking sports. The complex anatomy of the rectus femoris puts it at greatest risk of injury. There is variability in prognosis in the literature, with reinjury rates as high as 67% in the severe graded proximal tear. Studies have highlighted that athletes can reinjure after nonoperative management, and some benefit may be derived from surgical repair to restore function and return to sport (RTS). This injury is potentially career-threatening in the elite-level athlete, and we aim to highlight the key recent literature on interventions to restore strength and function to allow early RTS while reducing the risk of injury recurrence. This article reviews the optimal diagnostic strategies and classification of quadriceps injuries. We highlight the unique anatomy of each injury on MRI and the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative treatment, providing an evidence-based management framework for athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(12):1244–1251.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 10 | Pages 791 - 800
19 Oct 2023
Fontalis A Raj RD Haddad IC Donovan C Plastow R Oussedik S Gabr A Haddad FS


In-hospital length of stay (LOS) and discharge dispositions following arthroplasty could act as surrogate measures for improvement in patient pathways, and have major cost saving implications for healthcare providers. With the ever-growing adoption of robotic technology in arthroplasty, it is imperative to evaluate its impact on LOS. The objectives of this study were to compare LOS and discharge dispositions following robotic arm-assisted total knee arthroplasty (RO TKA) and unicompartmental arthroplasty (RO UKA) versus conventional technique (CO TKA and UKA).


This large-scale, single-institution study included patients of any age undergoing primary TKA (n = 1,375) or UKA (n = 337) for any cause between May 2019 and January 2023. Data extracted included patient demographics, LOS, need for post anaesthesia care unit (PACU) admission, anaesthesia type, readmission within 30 days, and discharge dispositions. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were also employed to identify factors and patient characteristics related to delayed discharge.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 843 - 849
1 Aug 2023
Grandhi TSP Fontalis A Raj RD Kim WJ Giebaly DE Haddad FS

Telehealth has the potential to change the way we approach patient care. From virtual consenting to reducing carbon emissions, costs, and waiting times, it is a powerful tool in our clinical armamentarium. There is mounting evidence that remote diagnostic evaluation and decision-making have reached an acceptable level of accuracy and can safely be adopted in orthopaedic surgery. Furthermore, patients’ and surgeons’ satisfaction with virtual appointments are comparable to in-person consultations. Challenges to the widespread use of telehealth should, however, be acknowledged and include the cost of installation, training, maintenance, and accessibility. It is also vital that clinicians are conscious of the medicolegal and ethical considerations surrounding the medium and adhere strictly to the relevant data protection legislation and storage framework. It remains to be seen how organizations harness the full spectrum of the technology to facilitate effective patient care.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(8):843–849.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 7 | Pages 447 - 454
10 Jul 2023
Lisacek-Kiosoglous AB Powling AS Fontalis A Gabr A Mazomenos E Haddad FS

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly growing across many domains, of which the medical field is no exception. AI is an umbrella term defining the practical application of algorithms to generate useful output, without the need of human cognition. Owing to the expanding volume of patient information collected, known as ‘big data’, AI is showing promise as a useful tool in healthcare research and across all aspects of patient care pathways. Practical applications in orthopaedic surgery include: diagnostics, such as fracture recognition and tumour detection; predictive models of clinical and patient-reported outcome measures, such as calculating mortality rates and length of hospital stay; and real-time rehabilitation monitoring and surgical training. However, clinicians should remain cognizant of AI’s limitations, as the development of robust reporting and validation frameworks is of paramount importance to prevent avoidable errors and biases. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive understanding of AI and its subfields, as well as to delineate its existing clinical applications in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Furthermore, this narrative review expands upon the limitations of AI and future direction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2023;12(7):447–454.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 723 - 728
1 Jul 2023
Raj RD Fontalis A Grandhi TSP Kim WJ Gabr A Haddad FS

There is a disparity in sport-related injuries between sexes, with females sustaining non-contact musculoskeletal injuries at a higher rate. Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are between two and eight times more common than in males, and females also have a higher incidence of ankle sprains, patellofemoral pain, and bone stress injuries. The sequelae of such injuries can be devastating to an athlete, resulting in time out of sport, surgery, and the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to identify the causes of this disparity and introduce prevention programmes to reduce the incidence of these injuries. A natural difference reflects the effect of reproductive hormones in females, which have receptors in certain musculoskeletal tissues. Relaxin increases ligamentous laxity. Oestrogen decreases the synthesis of collagen and progesterone does the opposite. Insufficient diet and intensive training can lead to menstrual irregularities, which are common in female athletes and result in injury, whereas oral contraception may have a protective effect against certain injuries. It is important for coaches, physiotherapists, nutritionists, doctors, and athletes to be aware of these issues and to implement preventive measures. This annotation explores the relationship between the menstrual cycle and orthopaedic sports injuries in pre-menopausal females, and proposes recommendations to mitigate the risk of sustaining these injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(7):723–728.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 833 - 843
1 Jul 2022
Kayani B Baawa-Ameyaw J Fontalis A Tahmassebi J Wardle N Middleton R Stephen A Hutchinson J Haddad FS


This study reports the ten-year wear rates, incidence of osteolysis, clinical outcomes, and complications of a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing oxidized zirconium (OxZr) versus cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA).


Patients undergoing primary THA were recruited from four institutions and prospectively allocated to the following treatment groups: Group A, CoCr femoral head with XLPE liner; Group B, OxZr femoral head with XLPE liner; and Group C, OxZr femoral head with UHMWPE liner. All study patients and assessors recording outcomes were blinded to the treatment groups. The outcomes of 262 study patients were analyzed at ten years’ follow-up.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 4 | Pages 210 - 213
1 Apr 2022
Fontalis A Haddad FS

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 8 | Pages 457 - 464
1 Aug 2020
Gelfer Y Hughes KP Fontalis A Wientroub S Eastwood DM


To analyze outcomes reported in studies of Ponseti correction of idiopathic clubfoot.


A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify a list of outcomes and outcome tools reported in the literature. A total of 865 studies were screened following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and 124 trials were included in the analysis. Data extraction was completed by two researchers for each trial. Each outcome tool was assigned to one of the five core areas defined by the Outcome Measures Recommended for use in Randomized Clinical Trials (OMERACT). Bias assessment was not deemed necessary for the purpose of this paper.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 6 | Pages 639 - 645
1 Jun 2019
Gelfer Y Wientroub S Hughes K Fontalis A Eastwood DM


The Ponseti method is the benchmark treatment for the correction of clubfoot. The primary rate of correction is very high, but outcome further down the treatment pathway is less predictable. Several methods of assessing severity at presentation have been reported. Classification later in the course of treatment is more challenging. This systematic review considers the outcome of the Ponseti method in terms of relapse and determines how clubfoot is assessed at presentation, correction, and relapse.

Patients and Methods

A prospectively registered systematic review was carried out according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies that reported idiopathic clubfoot treated by the Ponseti method between 1 January 2012 and 31 May 2017 were included. The data extracted included demographics, Ponseti methodology, assessment methods, and rates of relapse and surgery.