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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 8 | Pages 929 - 937
1 Aug 2022
Gurung B Liu P Harris PDR Sagi A Field RE Sochart DH Tucker K Asopa V


Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common orthopaedic procedures requiring postoperative radiographs to confirm implant positioning and identify complications. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based image analysis has the potential to automate this postoperative surveillance. The aim of this study was to prepare a scoping review to investigate how AI is being used in the analysis of radiographs following THA and TKA, and how accurate these tools are.


The Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed libraries were systematically searched to identify relevant articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews and Arksey and O’Malley framework were followed. Study quality was assessed using a modified Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies tool. AI performance was reported using either the area under the curve (AUC) or accuracy.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1519 - 1526
2 Nov 2020
Clement ND Afzal I Demetriou C Deehan DJ Field RE Kader DF


The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the postoperative Oxford Knee Score (OKS) demonstrated a ceiling effect at one and/or two years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The secondary aim was to identify preoperative independent predictors for patients that achieved a ceiling score after TKA.


A retrospective cohort of 5,857 patients undergoing a primary TKA were identified from an established arthroplasty database. Patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), OKS, and EuroQoL five-dimension (EQ-5D) general health scores were collected preoperatively and at one and two years postoperatively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent preoperative predictors of patients achieving postoperative ceiling scores. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify a preoperative OKS that predicted a postoperative ceiling score.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 5 | Pages 207 - 215
1 May 2019
Key S Scott G Stammers JG Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


The medially spherical GMK Sphere (Medacta International AG, Castel San Pietro, Switzerland) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was previously shown to accommodate lateral rollback while pivoting around a stable medial compartment, aiming to replicate native knee kinematics in which some coronal laxity, especially laterally, is also present. We assess coronal plane kinematics of the GMK Sphere and explore the occurrence and pattern of articular separation during static and dynamic activities.


Using pulsed fluoroscopy and image matching, the coronal kinematics and articular surface separation of 16 well-functioning TKAs were studied during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing, static, and dynamic activities. The closest distances between the modelled articular surfaces were examined with respect to knee position, and proportions of joint poses exhibiting separation were computed.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 3 | Pages 80 - 86
1 Mar 2016
Scott G Imam MA Eifert A Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


Throughout the 20th Century, it has been postulated that the knee moves on the basis of a four-bar link mechanism composed of the cruciate ligaments, the femur and the tibia. As a consequence, the femur has been thought to roll back with flexion, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prostheses have been designed on this basis. Recent work, however, has proposed that at a position of between 0° and 120° the medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly whereas the lateral femoral condyle tends, but is not obliged, to roll back – a combination of movements which equates to tibial internal/ femoral external rotation with flexion. The aim of this paper was to assess if the articular geometry of the GMK Sphere TKA could recreate the natural knee movements in situ/in vivo.


The pattern of knee movement was studied in 15 patients (six male: nine female; one male with bilateral TKAs) with 16 GMK Sphere implants, at a mean age of 66 years (53 to 76) with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2 (20 to 35). The motions of all 16 knees were observed using pulsed fluoroscopy during a number of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing static and dynamic activities.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 45 - 51
1 Jan 2013
Williams DP Blakey CM Hadfield SG Murray DW Price AJ Field RE

The Oxford knee score (OKS) is a validated and widely accepted disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure, but there is limited evidence regarding any long-term trends in the score. We reviewed 5600 individual OKS questionnaires (1547 patients) from a prospectively-collected knee replacement database, to determine the trends in OKS over a ten-year period following total knee replacement. The mean OKS pre-operatively was 19.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.8 to 20.2). The maximum post-operative OKS was observed at two years (mean score 34.4 (95% CI 33.7 to 35.2)), following which a gradual but significant decline was observed through to the ten-year assessment (mean score 30.1 (95% CI 29.1 to 31.1)) (p < 0.001). A similar trend was observed for most of the individual OKS components (p < 0.001). Kneeling ability initially improved in the first year but was then followed by rapid deterioration (p < 0.001). Pain severity exhibited the greatest improvement, although residual pain was reported in over two-thirds of patients post-operatively, and peak improvement in the night pain component did not occur until year four. Post-operative OKS was lower for women (p < 0.001), those aged < 60 years (p < 0.003) and those with a body mass index > 35 kg/m2 (p < 0.014), although similar changes in scores were observed. This information may assist surgeons in advising patients of their expected outcomes, as well as providing a comparative benchmark for evaluating longer-term outcomes following knee replacement.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:45–51.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 38 - 44
1 Jan 2013
Williams DP Price AJ Beard DJ Hadfield SG Arden NK Murray DW Field RE

We present a comparison of patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) in relation to patient age, in patients who had received a total (TKR) or unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). The outcome was evaluated using the Oxford knee score (OKS), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and satisfaction scores. Patients aged 65 to 84 years demonstrated better pre-operative function scores than those aged < 65 years (OKS, p = 0.03; EQ-5D, p = 0.048) and those aged ≥ 85 years (OKS, p = 0.03). Post-operative scores were comparable across age groups, but a linear trend for greater post-operative improvement in OKS and EQ-5D was seen with decreasing age (p < 0.033). The overall mean satisfaction score at six months was 84.9, but those aged <  55 years exhibited a lower mean level of satisfaction (78.3) compared with all other age groups (all p < 0.031). The cumulative overall two-year revision rate was 1.3%. This study demonstrates that good early outcomes, as measured by the OKS and EQ-5D, can be anticipated following knee replacement regardless of the patient’s age, although younger patients gain greater improvement. However, the lower satisfaction in those aged < 55 years is a concern, and suggests that outcome is not fully encapsulated by the OKS and EQ-5D evaluation, and raises the question whether the OKS alone is an appropriate measure of pain and function in younger, more active individuals.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:38–44.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1120 - 1125
1 Aug 2012
Alazzawi S Bardakos NV Hadfield SG Butt U Beer ZH Field RE

Using general practitioner records and hospital notes and through direct telephone conversation with patients, we investigated the accuracy of nine patient-reported complications gathered from a self-completed questionnaire after elective joint replacement surgery of the hip and knee. A total of 402 post-discharge complications were reported after 8546 elective operations that were undertaken within a three-year period. These were reported by 136 men and 240 women with a mean age of 71.8 years (34 to 93). A total of 319 reported complications (79.4%; 95% confidence interval 75.4 to 83.3) were confirmed to be correct. High rates of correct reporting were demonstrated for infection (94.5%) and the need for further surgery (100%), whereas the rates of reporting deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction and stroke were lower (75% to 84.2%). Dislocation, peri-prosthetic fractures and nerve palsy had modest rates of correct reporting (36% to 57.1%). More patients who had knee surgery delivered incorrect reports of dislocation (p = 0.001) and DVT (p = 0.013).

Despite these variations, it appears that post-operative complications may form part of a larger patient-reported outcome programme after elective joint replacement surgery.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 1, Issue 2 | Pages 7 - 10
1 Apr 2012
Field RE Shimmin A Cattani L

The need to demonstrate probity and fair market competition has increased scrutiny of the relationships between orthopaedic surgeons and the industry that supplies them with their tools and devices. Investigations and judgements from the US Department of Justice and the introduction of the AdvaMed and Eucomed codes have defined new boundaries for interactions between these groups. This article summarises the current interplay between orthopaedic surgeons and industry, and provides recommendations for the future.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 3 | Pages 412 - 418
1 Mar 2012
Judge A Arden NK Kiran A Price A Javaid MK Beard D Murray D Field RE

We obtained information from the Elective Orthopaedic Centre on 1523 patients with baseline and six-month Oxford hip scores (OHS) after undergoing primary hip replacement (THR) and 1784 patients with Oxford knee scores (OKS) for primary knee replacement (TKR) who completed a six-month satisfaction questionnaire.

Receiver operating characteristic curves identified an absolute change in OHS of 14 points or more as the point that discriminates best between patients’ satisfaction levels and an 11-point change for the OKS. Satisfaction is highest (97.6%) in patients with an absolute change in OHS of 14 points or more, compared with lower levels of satisfaction (81.8%) below this threshold. Similarly, an 11-point absolute change in OKS was associated with 95.4% satisfaction compared with 76.5% below this threshold. For the six-month OHS a score of 35 points or more distinguished patients with the highest satisfaction level, and for the six-month OKS 30 points or more identified the highest level of satisfaction. The thresholds varied according to patients’ pre-operative score, where those with severe pre-operative pain/function required a lower six-month score to achieve the highest levels of satisfaction.

Our data suggest that the choice of a six-month follow-up to assess patient-reported outcomes of THR/TKR is acceptable. The thresholds help to differentiate between patients with different levels of satisfaction, but external validation will be required prior to general implementation in clinical practice.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1660 - 1664
1 Dec 2011
Judge A Arden NK Price A Glyn-Jones S Beard D Carr AJ Dawson J Fitzpatrick R Field RE

We obtained pre-operative and six-month post-operative Oxford hip (OHS) and knee scores (OKS) for 1523 patients who underwent total hip replacement and 1784 patients who underwent total knee replacement. They all also completed a six-month satisfaction question.

Scatter plots showed no relationship between pre-operative Oxford scores and six-month satisfaction scores. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were -0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.01) between OHS and satisfaction and 0.04 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.08) between OKS and satisfaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify a cut-off point for the pre-operative OHS/OKS that identifies whether or not a patient is satisfied with surgery. We obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.51 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.56) for hip replacement and 0.56 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.60) for knee replacement, indicating that pre-operative Oxford scores have no predictive accuracy in distinguishing satisfied from dissatisfied patients.

In the NHS widespread attempts are being made to use patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) data for the purpose of prioritising patients for surgery. Oxford hip and knee scores have no predictive accuracy in relation to post-operative patient satisfaction. This evidence does not support their current use in prioritising access to care.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 108 - 110
1 Jan 2011
Rajakulendran K Strambi F Buly J Field RE

Developmental dysplasia of the hip predisposes to premature degenerative hip disease. A number of operations have been described to improve acetabular cover and have achieved varying degrees of success. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman, who underwent a shelf procedure to reconstruct a dysplastic hip 75 years ago. To date, the shelf remains intact and the hip is asymptomatic. We believe this represents the longest documented outcome of any procedure to stabilise the hip.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1561 - 1565
1 Dec 2009
Blakey CM Eswaramoorthy VK Hamilton LC Biant LC Field RE

We report the minimum five-year follow-up of 352 primary total hip replacements using the uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated ANCA-Fit femoral component with a modular neck and head. The series comprised 319 patients (212 men, 107 women) with a mean age at operation of 64.4 years (28 to 97). The principal diagnosis was osteoarthritis. A total of 18 patients (21 hips) died before their follow-up at five years, nine patients (11 hips) were lost to follow-up, and four (four hips) declined further follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes have been recorded for 288 patients (316 hips).

Their mean Oxford Hip Score improved significantly from 41 points (16 to 57) pre-operatively to 20 points (12 to 44) at five-year follow-up. Radiological assessment showed good bony stability in 98% of implants. There were two cases of aseptic loosening of the femoral component. There were no clinical or radiological complications related to modularity. In our series we did not see the high rate of intra-operative fracture previously reported for this implant.

This medium-term follow-up study demonstrates that the clinical outcome of the ANCA-Fit femoral component is, to date, comparable with that of other metaphyseal loading femoral components.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1454 - 1458
1 Nov 2009
Eswaramoorthy VK Biant LC Field RE

We report the outcome of total hip replacement in 29 failed metal-on-metal resurfacing hip replacements in which the primary surgery was performed between August 1995 and February 2005. The mean length of follow-up was five years (1.7 to 11.7). Of the 29 hip resurfacings, 19 acetabular components and all the femoral components were revised (28 uncemented stems and one cemented stem). There were no deaths and none of the patients was lost to follow-up. None of the hips underwent any further revision. The results of the revision resurfacing group were compared with those of a control group of age-matched patients. In the latter group there were 236 primary total hip replacements and 523 resurfacings performed during the same period by the same surgeons.

The outcome of the revision resurfacing group was comparable with that of the stemmed primary hip replacement group but was less good than that of the primary hip resurfacing group. Long-term follow-up is advocated to monitor the outcome of these cases.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 776 - 783
1 Jun 2009
Rajesparan K Biant LC Ahmad M Field RE

Tranexamic acid is a fibrinolytic inhibitor which reduces blood loss in total knee replacement. We examined the effect on blood loss of a standardised intravenous bolus dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid, given at the induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing total hip replacement and tested the potential prothrombotic effect by undertaking routine venography. In all, 36 patients received 1 g of tranexamic acid, and 37 no tranexamic acid. Blood loss was measured directly per-operatively and indirectly post-operatively.

Tranexamic acid reduced the early post-operative blood loss and total blood loss (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008, respectively) but not the intraoperative blood loss. The tranexamic acid group required fewer transfusions (p = 0.03) and had no increased incidence of deep-vein thrombosis. The reduction in early post-operative blood loss was more marked in women (p = 0.05), in whom this effect was dose-related (r = −0.793).

Our study showed that the administration of a standardised pre-operative bolus of 1 g of tranexamic acid was cost-effective in reducing the blood loss and transfusion requirements after total hip replacement, especially in women.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 4 | Pages 533 - 535
1 Apr 2009
Hamilton LC Biant LC Temple LN Field RE

Idiopathic calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout) has a variable presentation. Many joints are usually affected; single joint disease is uncommon. We present a case report of primary monoarticular pseudogout affecting the hip. The diagnosis was made on the appearance and analysis of specimens obtained at arthroscopy. Monoarticular pseudogout is rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any presentation of joint pain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1278 - 1283
1 Oct 2008
Eswaramoorthy V Moonot P Kalairajah Y Biant LC Field RE

We report the clinical and radiological outcome at ten years of 104 primary total hip replacements (100 patients) using the Metasul metal-on-metal bearing. Of these, 52 had a cemented Stuehmer-Weber polyethylene acetabular component with a Metasul bearing and 52 had an uncemented Allofit acetabular component with a Metasul liner. A total of 15 patients (16 hips) died before their follow-up at ten years and three were lost to follow-up. The study group therefore comprised 82 patients (85 hips).

The mean Oxford score at ten years was 20.7 (12 to 42). Six of 85 hips required revision surgery. One was performed because of infection, one for aseptic loosening of the acetabular component and four because of unexplained pain. Histological examination showed an aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis associated lesion-type tissue response in two of these. Continued follow-up is advocated in order to monitor the long-term performance of the Metasul bearing and tissue responses to metal debris.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 3 | Pages 319 - 323
1 Mar 2008
Moonot P Singh PJ Cronin MD Kalairajah YE Kavanagh TG Field RE

Hip resurfacing is a bone-conserving procedure with respect to proximal femoral resection, but there is debate in the literature as to whether the same holds true for the acetabulum. We have investigated whether the Birmingham hip resurfacing conserves acetabular bone.

Between 1998 and 2005, 500 Birmingham hip resurfacings were performed by two surgeons. Between 1996 and 2005 they undertook 700 primary hip replacements, with an uncemented acetabular component. These patients formed the clinical material to compare acetabular component sizing. The Birmingham hip resurfacing group comprised 350 hips in men and 150 hips in women. The uncemented total hip replacement group comprised 236 hips in men and 464 hips in women. Age- and gender-matched analysis of a cohort of patients for the sizes of the acetabular components required for the two types of replacement was also undertaken. Additionally, an analysis of the sizes of the components used by each surgeon was performed.

For age-matched women, the mean outside diameter of the Birmingham hip resurfacing acetabular components was 2.03 mm less than that of the acetabular components in the uncemented total hip replacements (p < 0.0001). In similarly matched men there was no significant difference (p = 0.77). A significant difference was also found between the size of acetabular components used by the two surgeons for Birmingham hip resurfacing for both men (p = 0.0015) and women (p = 0.001). In contrast, no significant difference was found between the size of acetabular components used by the two surgeons for uncemented total hip replacement in either men or women (p = 0.06 and p = 0.14, respectively). This suggests that variations in acetabular preparation also influence acetabular component size in hip resurfacing.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 3 | Pages 360 - 363
1 Mar 2008
Changulani M Kalairajah Y Peel T Field RE

We audited the relationship between obesity and the age at which hip and knee replacement was undertaken at our centre. The database was analysed for age, the Oxford hip or knee score and the body mass index (BMI) at the time of surgery. In total, 1369 patients were studied, 1025 treated by hip replacement and 344 by knee replacement. The patients were divided into five groups based on their BMI (normal, overweight, moderately obese, severely obese and morbidly obese).

The difference in the mean Oxford score at surgery was not statistically significant between the groups (p > 0.05). For those undergoing hip replacement, the mean age of the morbidly obese patients was ten years less than that of those with a normal BMI. For those treated by knee replacement, the difference was 13 years. The age at surgery fell significantly for those with a BMI > 35 kg/m2 for both hip and knee replacement (p > 0.05). This association was stronger for patients treated by knee than by hip replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1110 - 1115
1 Aug 2006
Ong KL Kurtz SM Manley MT Rushton N Mohammed NA Field RE

The effects of the method of fixation and interface conditions on the biomechanics of the femoral component of the Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty were examined using a highly detailed three-dimensional computer model of the hip. Stresses and strains in the proximal femur were compared for the natural femur and for the femur resurfaced with the Birmingham hip resurfacing. A comparison of cemented versus uncemented fixation showed no advantage of either with regard to bone loading. When the Birmingham hip resurfacing femoral component was fixed to bone, proximal femoral stresses and strains were non-physiological. Bone resorption was predicted in the inferomedial and superolateral bone within the Birmingham hip resurfacing shell. Resorption was limited to the superolateral region when the stem was not fixed. The increased bone strain observed adjacent to the distal stem should stimulate an increase in bone density at that location. The remodelling of bone seen during revision of failed Birmingham hip resurfacing implants appears to be consistent with the predictions of our finite element analysis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 3 | Pages 315 - 320
1 Mar 2006
Field RE Singh PJ Latif AMH Cronin MD Matthews DJ

We describe the results at five years of a prospective study of a new tri-tapered polished, cannulated, cemented femoral stem implanted in 51 patients (54 hips) with osteoarthritis. The mean age and body mass index of the patients was 74 years and 27.9, respectively. Using the anterolateral approach, half of the stems were implanted by a consultant orthopaedic surgeon and half by six different registrars. There were three withdrawals from the study because of psychiatric illness, a deep infection and a recurrent dislocation. Five deaths occurred prior to five-year follow-up and one patient withdrew from clinical review.

In the remaining 51 hips the mean pre-operative Oxford hip score was 47 points which decreased to 19 points at five years (45 hips). Of the stems 49 (98%) were implanted within 1° of neutral in the femoral canal. The mean migration of the stem at five years was 1.9 mm and the survivorship for aseptic loosening was 100%. There was no significant difference in outcome between the consultant and registrar groups. At five years, the results were comparable with those of other polished, tapered, cemented stems. Long-term surveillance continues.