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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 2 | Pages 259 - 263
1 Feb 2009
Dimmen S Nordsletten L Engebretsen L Steen H Madsen JE

Conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and newer specific cyclo-oxygenase-2 (cox-2) inhibitors are commonly used in musculoskeletal trauma and orthopaedic surgery to reduce the inflammatory response and pain. These drugs have been reported to impair bone metabolism. In reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament the hamstring tendons are mainly used as the graft of choice, and a prerequisite for good results is healing of the tendons in the bone tunnel. Many of these patients are routinely given NSAIDs or cox-2 inhibitors, although no studies have elucidated the effects of these drugs on tendon healing in the bone tunnel.

In our study 60 female Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups of 20. One received parecoxib, one indometacin and one acted as a control. In all the rats the tendo-Achillis was released proximally from the calf muscles. It was then pulled through a drill hole in the distal tibia and sutured anteriorly. The rats were given parecoxib, indometacin or saline intraperitoneally twice daily for seven days. After 14 days the tendon/bone-tunnel interface was subjected to mechanical testing.

Significantly lower maximum pull-out strength (p < 0.001), energy absorption (p < 0.001) and stiffness (p = 0.035) were found in rats given parecoxib and indometacin compared with the control group, most pronounced with parecoxib.


The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 5 | Pages 817 - 822
1 Sep 1996
GrĂžntvedt T Engebretsen L Bredland T

In 100 consecutive patients with chronic deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament we reconstructed the ligament using a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft either with or without a Kennedy ligament augmentation device. The patients had an aggressive rehabilitation programme supervised by two physiotherapists.

They were followed prospectively for at least two years by one surgeon, and assessed after six months and at one and two years. No significant functional or clinical difference was found between the two groups and the stability of the knees did not deteriorate with time in either group. The addition of a Kennedy ligament augmentation device gave no better results than the bone-patellar tendon-bone technique alone.