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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 6 | Pages 881 - 885
1 Nov 1993
Barrett D MacLean J Bettany J Ransford A Edgar M

Costoplasty can reduce the important cosmetic deformity of rib prominence in scoliosis but there are few objective reports of correction. We recorded the results of three objective methods of assessing back shape before and after short-segment costoplasty in 55 patients. We showed that significant improvement was maintained over a two-year follow-up period. Primary costoplasty at the time of scoliosis surgery (n = 35) achieved greater proportional correction than secondary costoplasty performed after fusion of the spine (n = 20). The rib segments removed at primary surgery provided enough bone for the autogenous graft; harvesting from the pelvis was unnecessary. We report a new classification of rib morphology which helps in planning the site and extent of costoplasty, and in predicting the possible correction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 3 | Pages 487 - 491
1 May 1991
Forbes H Allen P Waller C Jones S Edgar M Webb P Ransford A

Since 1981, during operations for spinal deformity, we have routinely used electrophysiological monitoring of the spinal cord by the epidural measurement of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve. We present the results in 1168 consecutive cases. Decreases in SEP amplitude of more than 50% occurred in 119 patients, of whom 32 had clinically detectable neurological changes postoperatively. In 35 cases the SEP amplitude was rapidly restored, either spontaneously or by repositioning of the recording electrode; they had no postoperative neurological changes. One patient had delayed onset of postoperative symptoms referrable to nerve root lesions without evidence of spinal cord involvement, but there were no false negative cases of intra-operative spinal cord damage. In 52 patients persistent, significant, SEP changes were noted without clinically detectable neurological sequelae. None of the many cases which showed falls in SEP amplitude of less than 50% experienced neurological problems. Neuromuscular scoliosis, the use of sublaminar wires, the magnitude of SEP decrement, and a limited or absent intra-operative recovery of SEP amplitude were identified as factors which increased the risk of postoperative neurological deficit.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 2 | Pages 246 - 251
1 Mar 1989
Calvert P Edgar M Webb P

We reviewed 47 patients with neurofibromatosis and dystrophic spinal deformities; 32 of these patients had been untreated for an average of 3.6 years and in them the natural history was studied. The commonest pattern of deformity at the time of presentation was a short angular thoracic scoliosis, but with progression the angle of kyphosis also increased. Deterioration during childhood was usual but its rate was variable. Severe dystrophic changes in the apical vertebrae and in particular anterior scalloping have a poor prognosis for deterioration. The dystrophic spinal deformity of neurofibromatosis requires early surgical stabilisation which should be by combined anterior and posterior fusion if there is an abnormal angle of kyphosis or severely dystrophic apical vertebrae. Some carefully selected patients can be treated by posterior fusion and instrumentation alone.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 70-B, Issue 5 | Pages 712 - 716
1 Nov 1988
Edgar M Mehta M

We reviewed 77 unfused and 91 fused patients with idiopathic scoliosis who first attended between 1949 and 1965. Both groups were re-examined at least 10 years after reaching skeletal maturity, with attention to progression of the Cobb angle, increased in vertebral rotation, back pain and psychosocial problems. We found that spinal fusion protects the scoliotic spine from further deterioration during adult life except for those with severe curves and marked rotation. Fusion also significantly reduced the incidence of severe pain and allowed patients to carry out heavy physical work, but did not confer complete immunity from backache. Surgery improved the appearance, but patients were not always completely satisfied with the cosmetic result.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 2 | Pages 175 - 178
1 Mar 1987
Ross A Edgar M Swann M Ansell B

Structural scoliosis occurs more commonly in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the normal population. We have reviewed 32 patients with both juvenile arthritis and a scoliosis and suggest that structural curves may arise from postural curves associated with asymmetrical involvement of lower limb joints.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 67-B, Issue 2 | Pages 173 - 174
1 Mar 1985
Edgar M

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 66-B, Issue 4 | Pages 513 - 517
1 Aug 1984
Citron N Edgar M Sheehy J Thomas D

Intramedullary spinal cord tumours may present as scoliosis without neurological signs. Those treating spinal deformities should be alert to this possible aetiology. The clinical features of 12 such cases are discussed with reference to early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with a painful scoliosis should be investigated with myelography as well as bone scintigraphy. Many intrinsic spinal cord tumours are now amenable to surgical removal. The prognosis for neurological recovery is poor once a severe deficit becomes established. The importance of early diagnosis and joint orthopaedic and neurosurgical management is emphasised.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 65-B, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 139
1 Mar 1983
Jones S Edgar M Ransford A Thomas N

An electrophysiological system for monitoring the spinal cord during operations for scoliosis is described. During the development of the technique the recording of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials from the scalp and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials from the laminae or spines was superseded by the positioning of recording electrodes in the epidural space cephalad to the area to be fused. All recordings were made in response to stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the knee. Results in 138 patients are presented and the findings in three patients who exhibited neurological deficits after operation are described. It is concluded that spinal somatosensory evoked potentials are sensitive to minor spinal cord impairment, possible due to ischaemia, and that these changes may be reversed when the cause is quickly remedied. The monitoring system interferes minimally with anaesthetic and surgical procedures and is now performed as a routine.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 64-B, Issue 5 | Pages 530 - 535
1 Dec 1982
Edgar M Chapman R Glasgow M

One hundred and sixty-seven patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were allocated prospectively to one of three different groups for correction before undergoing posterior spinal fusion and Harrington instrumentation, In group 1 single curves were corrected by a Risser turnbuckle plaster jacket and double curves by halo-pelvic traction. In Group 2 patients performed Cotrel dynamic traction for three weeks and this was followed by correction in a plaster cast. In Group 3 patients were given Cotrel dynamic traction for one week only and the operation was performed without a plaster cast. There was no significant difference in the overall correction achieved among the patients in the three groups except that double curves corrected slightly better in Group 2. The correction achieved by Cotrel dynamic traction after three weeks was not significantly different from that obtained at 48 hours. An anteroposterior radiograph of the spine taken during Cotrel dynamic traction was a valuable guide to the mobility of the curve and is preferable to radiographs of the patients bending laterally, particularly with respect to curves over 70 degrees. The paper concludes that correction before operation is not required routinely in adolescent idiopathic curves unless the deformity is a severe and rigid one in which case a radiograph during Cotrel traction is a useful assessment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 64-B, Issue 2 | Pages 226 - 227
1 Apr 1982
Ransford A Edgar M