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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1007 - 1012
1 Sep 2023
Hoeritzauer I Paterson M Jamjoom AAB Srikandarajah N Soleiman H Poon MTC Copley PC Graves C MacKay S Duong C Leung AHC Eames N Statham PFX Darwish S Sell PJ Thorpe P Shekhar H Roy H Woodfield J


Patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) require emergency imaging and surgical decompression. The severity and type of symptoms may influence the timing of imaging and surgery, and help predict the patient’s prognosis. Categories of CES attempt to group patients for management and prognostication purposes. We aimed in this study to assess the inter-rater reliability of dividing patients with CES into categories to assess whether they can be reliably applied in clinical practice and in research.


A literature review was undertaken to identify published descriptions of categories of CES. A total of 100 real anonymized clinical vignettes of patients diagnosed with CES from the Understanding Cauda Equina Syndrome (UCES) study were reviewed by consultant spinal surgeons, neurosurgical registrars, and medical students. All were provided with published category definitions and asked to decide whether each patient had ‘suspected CES’; ‘early CES’; ‘incomplete CES’; or ‘CES with urinary retention’. Inter-rater agreement was assessed for all categories, for all raters, and for each group of raters using Fleiss’s kappa.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 8, Issue 1 | Pages 3 - 7
1 Feb 2019
Eames N Golash A Birch N

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1354 - 1365
1 Oct 2017
Patrick S McDowell A Lee A Frau A Martin U Gardner E McLorinan G Eames N


The aim of this study was to determine whether the sequential application of povidone iodine-alcohol (PVI) followed by chlorhexidine gluconate-alcohol (CHG) would reduce surgical wound contamination to a greater extent than PVI applied twice in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

Patients and Methods

A single-centre, interventional, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was undertaken, involving 407 patients who underwent elective spinal surgery.

For 203 patients, the skin was disinfected before surgery using PVI (10% [w/w (1% w/w available iodine)] in 95% industrial denatured alcohol, povidone iodine; Videne Alcoholic Tincture) twice, and for 204 patients using PVI once followed by CHG (2% [w/v] chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% [v/v] isopropyl alcohol; Chloraprep with tint). The primary outcome measure was contamination of the wound determined by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth from samples taken after disinfection.