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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 5 | Pages 709 - 712
1 May 2012
Di Gennaro GL Fosco M Spina M Donzelli O

The outcome of 56 children (61 shoulders) treated surgically at the Rizzoli Institute between April 1975 and June 2010 for congenital elevation of the scapula is reported. There were 31 girls and 25 boys with a mean age at surgery of 6.4 years (2 to 15). The deformity involved the right shoulder in 20 cases, the left in 31 and was bilateral in five. The degree of the deformity was graded clinically and radiologically according to the classifications of Cavendish and Rigault, respectively. All patients underwent a modified Green procedure combined, in selected cases, with resection of the superomedial portion of the scapula and excision of any omovertebral connection. After a mean follow-up of 10.9 years (1 to 29.3), there was cosmetic improvement by at least one Cavendish grade in 54 shoulders (88.5%). The mean abduction of the shoulder improved from 92° (50° to 155°) to 112° (90° to 170°) and the mean flexion improved from 121° (80° to 160°) to 155° (120° to 175°). The unsatisfactory cosmetic result in seven shoulders was due to coexistent scoliosis in two cases and insufficient reduction of the scapular elevation in the other five. An incomplete upper brachial plexus palsy occurred post-operatively in three patients but resolved within seven months.

We suggest that a modified Green procedure combined with resection of the superomedial portion of the scapula provides good cosmetic and functional results in patients with Sprengel’s shoulder.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 2 | Pages 277 - 283
1 Feb 2010
Lampasi M Bettuzzi C Palmonari M Donzelli O

A total of 38 relapsed congenital clubfeet (16 stiff, 22 partially correctable) underwent revision of soft-tissue surgery, with or without a bony procedure, and transfer of the tendon of tibialis anterior at a mean age of 4.8 years (2.0 to 10.1). The tendon was transferred to the third cuneiform in five cases, to the base of the third metatarsal in ten and to the base of the fourth in 23. The patients were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 24.8 years (10.8 to 35.6). A total of 11 feet were regarded as failures (one a tendon failure, five with a subtalar fusion due to over-correction, and five with a triple arthrodesis due to under-correction or relapse).

In the remaining feet the clinical outcome was excellent or good in 20 and fair or poor in seven. The mean Laaveg-Ponseti score was 81.6 of 100 points (52 to 92). Stiffness was mild in four feet and moderate or severe in 23.

Comparison between the post-operative and follow-up radiographs showed statistically significant variations of the talo-first metatarsal angle towards abduction. Variations of the talocalcaneal angles and of the overlap ratio were not significant.

Extensive surgery for relapsed clubfoot has a high rate of poor long-term results. The addition of transfer of the tendon of tibialis anterior can restore balance and may provide some improvement of forefoot adduction. However, it has a considerable complication rate, including failure of transfer, over-correction, and weakening of dorsiflexion. The procedure should be reserved for those limited cases in which muscle imbalance is a causative or contributing factor.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1356 - 1362
1 Oct 2007
Lampasi M Magnani M Donzelli O

We report the results of the treatment of nine children with an aneurysmal bone cyst of the distal fibula (seven cysts were juxtaphyseal, and two metaphyseal). The mean age of the children was 10 years and 3 months (7 years and 4 months to 12 years and 9 months). All had open physes. All cysts were active and in seven cases substituted and expanded the entire width of the bone (type-2 lesions). The mean longitudinal extension was 5.7 cm (3 to 10). The presenting symptoms were pain, swelling and pathological fracture. Moderate fibular shortening was evident in one patient.

In six patients curettage was performed, using phenol as adjuvant in three. Three with juxtaphyseal lesions underwent resection. A graft from the contralateral fibula (one case) and allografts (two cases) were positioned at the edge of the physis for reconstruction. The mean follow-up was 11.6 years (3.1 to 27.5). There was no recurrence.

At the final follow-up there was no significant difference in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores (excellent/good in all cases) and in growth disturbance, alignment, stability and bone reconstitution, but in the resection group the number of operations, including removal of hardware, complications (two minor) and time of immobilisation/orthosis, were increased. Movement of the ankle was restricted in one patient.

The potential risks in the management of these lesions include recurrence, physeal injury, instability of the ankle and hardware and graft complications. Although resection is effective it should be reserved for aggressive or recurrent juxtaphyseal lesions.