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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 8 | Pages 561 - 574
10 Aug 2022
Schulze-Tanzil GG Delgado Cáceres M Stange R Wildemann B Docheva D

Tendon is a bradytrophic and hypovascular tissue, hence, healing remains a major challenge. The molecular key events involved in successful repair have to be unravelled to develop novel strategies that reduce the risk of unfavourable outcomes such as non-healing, adhesion formation, and scarring. This review will consider the diverse pathophysiological features of tendon-derived cells that lead to failed healing, including misrouted differentiation (e.g. de- or transdifferentiation) and premature cell senescence, as well as the loss of functional progenitors. Many of these features can be attributed to disturbed cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) or unbalanced soluble mediators involving not only resident tendon cells, but also the cross-talk with immigrating immune cell populations. Unrestrained post-traumatic inflammation could hinder successful healing. Pro-angiogenic mediators trigger hypervascularization and lead to persistence of an immature repair tissue, which does not provide sufficient mechano-competence. Tendon repair tissue needs to achieve an ECM composition, structure, strength, and stiffness that resembles the undamaged highly hierarchically ordered tendon ECM. Adequate mechano-sensation and -transduction by tendon cells orchestrate ECM synthesis, stabilization by cross-linking, and remodelling as a prerequisite for the adaptation to the increased mechanical challenges during healing. Lastly, this review will discuss, from the cell biological point of view, possible optimization strategies for augmenting Achilles tendon (AT) healing outcomes, including adapted mechanostimulation and novel approaches by restraining neoangiogenesis, modifying stem cell niche parameters, tissue engineering, the modulation of the inflammatory cells, and the application of stimulatory factors.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(8):561–574.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 327 - 341
23 May 2022
Alagboso FI Mannala GK Walter N Docheva D Brochhausen C Alt V Rupp M


Bone regeneration during treatment of staphylococcal bone infection is challenging due to the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade and persist within osteoblasts. Here, we sought to determine whether the metabolic and extracellular organic matrix formation and mineralization ability of S. aureus-infected human osteoblasts can be restored after rifampicin (RMP) therapy.


The human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells infected with S. aureus EDCC 5055 strain and treated with 8 µg/ml RMP underwent osteogenic stimulation for up to 21 days. Test groups were Saos-2 cells + S. aureus and Saos-2 cells + S. aureus + 8 µg/ml RMP, and control groups were uninfected untreated Saos-2 cells and uninfected Saos-2 cells + 8 µg/ml RMP.