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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 7 | Pages 997 - 1003
1 Jul 2015
Papanagiotou M Dailiana ZH Karachalios T Varitimidis S Vlychou M Hantes M Malizos KN

We report the outcome of 84 nonunions involving long bones which were treated with rhBMP-7, in 84 patients (60 men: 24 women) with a mean age 46 years (18 to 81) between 2003 and 2011. The patients had undergone a mean of three previous operations (one to 11) for nonunion which had been present for a mean of 17 months (4 months to 20 years). The nonunions involved the lower limb in 71 patients and the remainder involved the upper limb. A total of 30 nonunions were septic. Treatment was considered successful when the nonunion healed without additional procedures. The relationship between successful union and the time to union was investigated and various factors including age and gender, the nature of the nonunion (location, size, type, chronicity, previous procedures, infection, the condition of the soft tissues) and type of index procedure (revision of fixation, type of graft, amount of rhBMP-7) were analysed. The improvement of the patients’ quality of life was estimated using the Short Form (SF) 12 score.

A total of 68 nonunions (80.9%) healed with no need for further procedures at a mean of 5.4 months (3 to 10) post-operatively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the factors affecting union suggested that only infection significantly affected the rate of union (p = 0.004).Time to union was only affected by the number of previous failed procedures (p = 0.006). An improvement of 79% and 32.2% in SF-12 physical and mental score, respectively, was noted within the first post-operative year.

Rh-BMP-7 combined with bone grafts, enabled healing of the nonunion and improved quality of life in about 80% of patients. Aseptic nonunions were much more likely to unite than septic ones. The number of previous failed operations significantly delayed the time to union.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:997–1003.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 31 - 35
1 Jan 2014
Papanagiotou M Malizos KN Vlychou M Dailiana ZH

This preliminary study evaluates a combination of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 and non-vascularised autologous fibular grafting (AFG) for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

BMP-7/AFG combination was applied in seven pre-collapse femoral heads (five Steinberg stage II, two stage III) in six patients. Pre- and post-operative evaluation included clinical (Harris hip score (HHS), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain) and radiological assessment (radiographs, quantitative CT) at a mean follow-up of 4 years (2 to 5.5).

A marked improvement of function (mean HHS increase of 49.2) and decrease of pain level (mean VAS decrease of 5) as well as retention of the sphericity of the femoral head was noted in five hips at the latest follow-up, while signs of consolidation were apparent from the third post-operative month. One patient (two hips) required bilateral total hip replacement at one year post-operatively. In the series as a whole, quantitative-CT evaluation revealed similar densities between affected and normal bone. Heterotopic ossification was observed in four hips, without compromise of the clinical outcome.

In this limited series AFG/BMP-7 combination proved a safe and effective method for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis, leading to early consolidation of the AFG and preventing collapse in five of seven hips, while the operative time and post-operative rehabilitation period were much shorter compared with free vascularised fibular grafts.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:31–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 2 | Pages 173 - 178
1 Feb 2012
Malizos KN Papasoulis E Dailiana ZH Papatheodorou LK Varitimidis SE

The introduction of a trabecular tantalum rod has been proposed for the management of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head but serves as a single-point of support of the necrotic lesion. We describe a technique using two or three 4.2 mm (or later 4.7 mm) tantalum pegs for the prevention of collapse of the necrotic lesion. We prospectively studied 21 patients (26 hips) with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated in this manner. Of these, 21 patients (24 hips) were available for radiological and clinical evaluation at a mean follow-up of 46 months (18 to 67). Radiological assessment showed that only eight hips deteriorated according to the Association Research Circulation Osseous classification, and four hips according to the Classification of the Japanese Investigation Committee of Health and Welfare. Functional improvement was obtained with an improvement in the mean Harris hip score from 65.2 (33.67 to 95) to 88.1 (51.72 to 100), the mean Merle D’Aubigné-Postel score from 13 (6 to 18) to 16 (11 to 18), a mean visual analogue score for pain from 5.2 (0 to 9.5) to 2.6 (0 to 7), and the mean Short-Form 36 score from 80.4 (56.8 to 107.1) to 92.4 (67.5 to 115.7). Of these 24 hips followed for a minimum of 18 months, three were considered as failures at the final follow-up, having required total hip replacement. One of the hips without full follow-up was also considered to be a failure. In more than two-thirds of the surviving hips a satisfactory clinical outcome was achieved with promising radiological findings. The estimated mean implant survival was 60 months (95% confidence interval 53.7 to 66.3).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 6 | Pages 778 - 785
1 Jun 2008
Varitimidis SE Basdekis GK Dailiana ZH Hantes ME Bargiotas K Malizos K

In a randomised prospective study, 20 patients with intra-articular fractures of the distal radius underwent arthroscopically- and fluoroscopically-assisted reduction and external fixation plus percutaneous pinning. Another group of 20 patients with the same fracture characteristics underwent fluoroscopically-assisted reduction alone and external fixation plus percutaneous pinning. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at follow-up of 24 months. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and modified Mayo wrist score were used at 3, 9, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. In the arthroscopically- and fluoroscopically-assisted group, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears were found in 12 patients (60%), complete or incomplete scapholunate ligament tears in nine (45%), and lunotriquetral ligament tears in four (20%). They were treated either arthroscopically or by open operation. Patients who underwent arthroscopically- and fluoroscopically-assisted treatment had significantly better supination, extension and flexion at all time points than those who had fluoroscopically-assisted surgery. The mean DASH scores were similar for both groups at 24 months, whereas the difference in the mean modified Mayo wrist scores remained statistically significant.

Although the groups are small, it is clear that the addition of arthroscopy to the fluoroscopically-assisted treatment of intra-articular distal radius fractures improves the outcome. Better treatment of associated intra-articular injuries might also have been a reason for the improved outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 3 | Pages 420 - 423
1 Apr 2000
Dailiana ZH Roulot E Le Viet D

We describe an operation to relieve compression of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve at the elbow. Between 1987 and 1997 we operated on seven patients, one with bilateral compression. In two the compression was associated with injury to biceps. A longitudinal or a transverse incision was carried out and the nerve was released from the deep fascia. Partial excision of the biceps aponeurosis was undertaken in the patients who did not have injury to biceps; some additional procedures were required for those patients with injuries. All patients had symptomatic relief.