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Aims

The primary aim of this study was to report the radiological outcomes of patients with a dorsally displaced distal radius fracture who were randomized to a moulded cast or surgical fixation with wires following manipulation and closed reduction of their fracture. The secondary aim was to correlate radiological outcomes with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the year following injury.

Methods

Participants were recruited as part of DRAFFT2, a UK multicentre clinical trial. Participants were aged 16 years or over with a dorsally displaced distal radius fracture, and were eligible for the trial if they needed a manipulation of their fracture, as recommended by their treating surgeon. Participants were randomly allocated on a 1:1 ratio to moulded cast or Kirschner wires after manipulation of the fracture in the operating theatre. Standard posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were performed in the radiology department of participating centres at the time of the patient’s initial assessment in the emergency department and six weeks postoperatively. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images taken at the time of fracture reduction were also assessed.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1013 - 1019
1 Sep 2023
Johansen A Hall AJ Ojeda-Thies C Poacher AT Costa ML

Aims

National hip fracture registries audit similar aspects of care but there is variation in the actual data collected; these differences restrict international comparison, benchmarking, and research. The Fragility Fracture Network (FFN) published a revised minimum common dataset (MCD) in 2022 to improve consistency and interoperability. Our aim was to assess compatibility of existing registries with the MCD.

Methods

We compared 17 hip fracture registries covering 20 countries (Argentina; Australia and New Zealand; China; Denmark; England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; Germany; Holland; Ireland; Japan; Mexico; Norway; Pakistan; the Philippines; Scotland; South Korea; Spain; and Sweden), setting each of these against the 20 core and 12 optional fields of the MCD.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 795 - 800
1 Jul 2023
Parsons N Achten J Costa ML

Aims

To report the outcomes of patients with a fracture of the distal tibia who were treated with intramedullary nail versus locking plate in the five years after participating in the Fixation of Distal Tibia fracture (FixDT) trial.

Methods

The FixDT trial reported the results for 321 patients randomized to nail or locking plate fixation in the first 12 months after their injury. In this follow-up study, we report the results of 170 of the original participants who agreed to be followed up until five years. Participants reported their Disability Rating Index (DRI) and health-related quality of life (EuroQol five-dimension three-level questionnaire) annually by self-reported questionnaire. Further surgical interventions related to the fracture were also recorded.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 719 - 722
1 Jul 2023
Costa ML Brealey SD Perry DC

Musculoskeletal diseases are having a growing impact worldwide. It is therefore crucial to have an evidence base to most effectively and efficiently implement future health services across different healthcare systems. International trials are an opportunity to address these challenges and have many potential benefits. They are, however, complex to set up and deliver, which may impact on the efficient and timely delivery of a project. There are a number of models of how international trials are currently being delivered across a range of orthopaedic patient populations, which are discussed here. The examples given highlight that the key to overcoming these challenges is the development of trusted and equal partnerships with collaborators in each country. International trials have the potential to address a global burden of disease, and in turn optimize the benefit to patients in the collaborating countries and those with similar health services and care systems.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(7):719–722.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 6 | Pages 352 - 361
1 Jun 2023
Aquilina AL Claireaux H Aquilina CO Tutton E Fitzpatrick R Costa ML Griffin XL

Aims

A core outcome set for adult, open lower limb fracture has been established consisting of ‘Walking, gait and mobility’, ‘Being able to return to life roles’, ‘Pain or discomfort’, and ‘Quality of life’. This study aims to identify which outcome measurement instruments (OMIs) should be recommended to measure each core outcome.

Methods

A systematic review and quality assessment were conducted to identify existing instruments with evidence of good measurement properties in the open lower limb fracture population for each core outcome. Additionally, shortlisting criteria were developed to identify suitable instruments not validated in the target population. Candidate instruments were presented, discussed, and voted on at a consensus meeting of key stakeholders.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 4 | Pages 294 - 305
20 Apr 2023
Aquilina AL Claireaux H Aquilina CO Tutton E Fitzpatrick R Costa ML Griffin XL

Aims

Open lower limb fracture is life-changing, resulting in substantial morbidity and resource demand, while inconsistent outcome-reporting hampers systematic review and meta-analysis. A core outcome set establishes consensus among key stakeholders for the recommendation of a minimum set of outcomes. This study aims to define a core outcome set for adult open lower limb fracture.

Methods

Candidate outcomes were identified from a previously published systematic review and a secondary thematic analysis of 25 patient interviews exploring the lived experience of recovery from open lower limb fracture. Outcomes were categorized and sequentially refined using healthcare professional and patient structured discussion groups. Consensus methods included a multi-stakeholder two-round online Delphi survey and a consensus meeting attended by a purposive sample of stakeholders, facilitated discussion, and voting using a nominal group technique.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 382 - 388
15 Mar 2023
Haque A Parsons H Parsons N Costa ML Redmond AC Mason J Nwankwo H Kearney RS

Aims

The aim of this study was to compare the longer-term outcomes of operatively and nonoperatively managed patients treated with a removable brace (fixed-angle removable orthosis) or a plaster cast immobilization for an acute ankle fracture.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing adults with an acute ankle fracture, initially managed either by operative or nonoperative care. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either a cast immobilization or a fixed-angle removable orthosis (removable brace). Data were collected on baseline characteristics, ankle function, quality of life, and complications. The Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS) was the primary outcome which was used to measure the participant’s ankle function. The primary endpoint was at 16 weeks, with longer-term follow-up at 24 weeks and two years.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 2 | Pages 138 - 146
14 Feb 2023
Aquilina AL Claireaux H Aquilina CO Tutton E Fitzpatrick R Costa ML Griffin XL

Aims

Open lower limb fracture is a life-changing injury affecting 11.5 per 100,000 adults each year, and causes significant morbidity and resource demand on trauma infrastructures. This study aims to identify what, and how, outcomes have been reported for people following open lower limb fracture over ten years.

Methods

Systematic literature searches identified all clinical studies reporting outcomes for adults following open lower limb fracture between January 2009 and July 2019. All outcomes and outcome measurement instruments were extracted verbatim. An iterative process was used to group outcome terms under standardized outcome headings categorized using an outcome taxonomy.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1225 - 1233
1 Nov 2022
Png ME Petrou S Achten J Ooms A Lamb SE Hedley H Dias J Costa ML

Aims

The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of surgical fixation with Kirschner (K-)wire ersus moulded casting after manipulation of a fracture of the distal radius in an operating theatre setting.

Methods

An economic evaluation was conducted based on data collected from the Distal Radius Acute Fracture Fixation Trial 2 (DRAFFT2) multicentre randomized controlled trial in the UK. Resource use was collected at three, six, and 12 months post-randomization using trial case report forms and participant-completed questionnaires. Cost-effectiveness was reported in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from an NHS and personal social services perspective. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the robustness of cost-effectiveness estimates, and decision uncertainty was handled using confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1190 - 1190
1 Oct 2022
Png ME Petrou S Fernandez MA Achten J Parsons N McGibbon A Gould J Griffin XL Costa ML


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 8 | Pages 922 - 928
1 Aug 2022
Png ME Petrou S Fernandez MA Achten J Parsons N McGibbon A Gould J Griffin XL Costa ML

Aims

The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of cemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) versus hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented HA for the treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fractures in older adults.

Methods

A within-trial economic evaluation was conducted based on data collected from the World Hip Trauma Evaluation 5 (WHiTE 5) multicentre randomized controlled trial in the UK. Resource use was measured over 12 months post-randomization using trial case report forms and participant-completed questionnaires. Cost-effectiveness was reported in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from the NHS and personal social service perspective. Methodological uncertainty was addressed using sensitivity analysis, while decision uncertainty was represented graphically using confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 7 | Pages 529 - 535
1 Jul 2022
Wormald JCR Rodrigues JN Cook JA Prieto-Alhambra D Costa ML

Aims

Hand trauma accounts for one in five of emergency department attendances, with a UK incidence of over five million injuries/year and 250,000 operations/year. Surgical site infection (SSI) in hand trauma surgery leads to further interventions, poor outcomes, and prolonged recovery, but has been poorly researched. Antimicrobial sutures have been recognized by both the World Health Organization and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence as potentially effective for reducing SSI. They have never been studied in hand trauma surgery: a completely different patient group and clinical pathway to previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of these sutures. Antimicrobial sutures are expensive, and further research in hand trauma is warranted before they become standard of care. The aim of this protocol is to conduct a feasibility study of antimicrobial sutures in patients undergoing hand trauma surgery to establish acceptability, compliance, and retention for a definitive trial.

Methods

A two-arm, multicentre feasibility RCT of 116 adult participants with hand and wrist injuries, randomized to either antimicrobial sutures or standard sutures. Study participants and outcome assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline (preoperatively), 30 days, 90 days, and six months, and will include SSI, patient-reported outcome measures, and return to work.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 6 | Pages 455 - 462
6 Jun 2022
Nwankwo H Mason J Costa ML Parsons N Redmond A Parsons H Haque A Kearney RS

Aims

To compare the cost-utility of removable brace compared with cast in the management of adult patients with ankle fracture.

Methods

A within-trial economic evaluation conducted from the UK NHS and personnel social services (PSS) perspective. Health resources and quality-of-life data were collected as part of the Ankle Injury Rehabilitation (AIR) multicentre, randomized controlled trial over a 12-month period using trial case report forms and patient-completed questionnaires. Cost-utility analysis was estimated in terms of the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Estimate uncertainty was explored by bootstrapping, visualized on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio plane. Net monetary benefit and probability of cost-effectiveness were evaluated at a range of willingness-to-pay thresholds and visualized graphically.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 6 | Pages 721 - 728
1 Jun 2022
Johansen A Ojeda-Thies C Poacher AT Hall AJ Brent L Ahern EC Costa ML

Aims

The aim of this study was to explore current use of the Global Fragility Fracture Network (FFN) Minimum Common Dataset (MCD) within established national hip fracture registries, and to propose a revised MCD to enable international benchmarking for hip fracture care.

Methods

We compared all ten established national hip fracture registries: England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; Scotland; Australia and New Zealand; Republic of Ireland; Germany; the Netherlands; Sweden; Norway; Denmark; and Spain. We tabulated all questions included in each registry, and cross-referenced them against the 32 questions of the MCD dataset. Having identified those questions consistently used in the majority of national audits, and which additional fields were used less commonly, we then used consensus methods to establish a revised MCD.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 5 | Pages 398 - 403
9 May 2022
Png ME Petrou S Knight R Masters J Achten J Costa ML

Aims

This study aims to estimate economic outcomes associated with 30-day deep surgical site infection (SSI) from closed surgical wounds in patients with lower limb fractures following major trauma.

Methods

Data from the Wound Healing in Surgery for Trauma (WHiST) trial, which collected outcomes from 1,547 adult participants using self-completed questionnaires over a six-month period following major trauma, was used as the basis of this empirical investigation. Associations between deep SSI and NHS and personal social services (PSS) costs (£, 2017 to 2018 prices), and between deep SSI and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), were estimated using descriptive and multivariable analyses. Sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of uncertainty surrounding components of the economic analyses.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 5 | Pages 633 - 639
2 May 2022
Costa ML Achten J Parsons NR

Aims

The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of patients with severe open fractures of the lower limb in the five years after they took part in the Wound management for Open Lower Limb Fracture (WOLLF) trial.

Methods

The WOLLF trial compared standard dressings to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied at the end of the first surgical wound debridement, and patients were followed-up for 12 months. At 12 months, 170 of the original 460 participants agreed to take part in this medium-term follow-up study. Patients reported their Disability Rating Index (DRI) (0 to 100, where 100 is total disability) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the EuroQol five-dimension three-level health questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) annually by self-reported questionnaire. Further surgical interventions related to the open fracture were also recorded.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 4 | Pages 340 - 347
22 Apr 2022
Winkler T Costa ML Ofir R Parolini O Geissler S Volk H Eder C

Aims

The aim of the HIPGEN consortium is to develop the first cell therapy product for hip fracture patients using PLacental-eXpanded (PLX-PAD) stromal cells.

Methods

HIPGEN is a multicentre, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 240 patients aged 60 to 90 years with low-energy femoral neck fractures (FNF) will be allocated to two arms and receive an intramuscular injection of either 150 × 106 PLX-PAD cells or placebo into the medial gluteal muscle after direct lateral implantation of total or hemi hip arthroplasty. Patients will be followed for two years. The primary endpoint is the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) at week 26. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include morphological parameters (lean body mass), functional parameters (abduction and handgrip strength, symmetry in gait, weightbearing), all-cause mortality rate and patient-reported outcome measures (Lower Limb Measure, EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire). Immunological biomarker and in vitro studies will be performed to analyze the PLX-PAD mechanism of action. A sample size of 240 subjects was calculated providing 88% power for the detection of a 1 SPPB point treatment effect for a two-sided test with an α level of 5%.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 3 | Pages 408 - 412
1 Mar 2022
Png ME Petrou S Bourget-Murray J Knight R Trompeter AJ Costa ML

Aims

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Orthopaedic Trauma Society (OTS) classification of open fractures and economic costs.

Methods

Resource use was measured during the six months that followed open fractures of the lower limb in 748 adults recruited as part of two large clinical trials within the UK Major Trauma Research Network. Resource inputs were valued using unit costs drawn from primary and secondary sources. Economic costs (GBP sterling, 2017 to 2018 prices), estimated from both a NHS and Personal Social Services (PSS) perspective, were related to the degree of complexity of the open fracture based on the OTS classification.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1802 - 1808
1 Dec 2021
Bruce J Knight R Parsons N Betteridge R Verdon A Brown J Campolier M Achten J Costa ML

Aims

Deep surgical site infection (SSI) is common after lower limb fracture. We compared the diagnosis of deep SSI using alternative methods of data collection and examined the agreement of clinical photography and in-person clinical assessment by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria after lower limb fracture surgery.

Methods

Data from two large, UK-based multicentre randomized controlled major trauma trials investigating SSI and wound healing after surgical repair of open lower limb fractures that could not be primarily closed (UK WOLLF), and surgical incisions for fractures that were primarily closed (UK WHiST), were examined. Trial interventions were standard wound care management and negative pressure wound therapy after initial surgical debridement. Wound outcomes were collected from 30 days to six weeks. We compared the level of agreement between wound photography and clinical assessment of CDC-defined SSI. We are also assessed the level of agreement between blinded independent assessors of the photographs.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1742 - 1742
1 Nov 2021
Masters J Cook J Achten J Costa ML