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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 6 - 8
1 Jan 2024
Stevenson J Cool P Ashford R

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(1):6–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue | Pages -
17 Oct 2023
Stevenson J Cool P Ashford R

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1115 - 1122
1 Oct 2023
Archer JE Chauhan GS Dewan V Osman K Thomson C Nandra RS Ashford RU Cool P Stevenson J


Most patients with advanced malignancy suffer bone metastases, which pose a significant challenge to orthopaedic services and burden to the health economy. This study aimed to assess adherence to the British Orthopaedic Oncology Society (BOOS)/British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) guidelines on patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the UK.


A prospective, multicentre, national collaborative audit was designed and delivered by a trainee-led collaborative group. Data were collected over three months (1 April 2021 to 30 June 2021) for all patients presenting with MBD. A data collection tool allowed investigators at each hospital to compare practice against guidelines. Data were collated and analyzed centrally to quantify compliance from 84 hospitals in the UK for a total of 1,137 patients who were eligible for inclusion.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1743 - 1751
1 Dec 2020
Lex JR Evans S Cool P Gregory J Ashford RU Rankin KS Cosker T Kumar A Gerrand C Stevenson J


Malignancy and surgery are risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We undertook a systematic review of the literature concerning the prophylactic management of VTE in orthopaedic oncology patients.


MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane, and CINAHL databases were searched focusing on VTE, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), bleeding, or wound complication rates.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 8 | Pages 500 - 507
18 Aug 2020
Cheruvu MS Bhachu DS Mulrain J Resool S Cool P Ford DJ Singh RA


Our rural orthopaedic service has undergone service restructure during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to sustain hip fracture care. All adult trauma care has been centralised to the Royal Shrewsbury Hospital for assessment and medical input, before transferring those requiring operative intervention to the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital. We aim to review the impact of COVID-19 on hip fracture workload and service changes upon management of hip fractures.


We reviewed our prospectively maintained trust database and National Hip Fracture Database records for the months of March and April between the years 2016 and 2020. Our assessment included fracture pattern (intrascapular vs extracapsular hip fracture), treatment intervention, length of stay and mortality.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1647 - 1654
1 Dec 2018
Shepherd KL Cool P Cribb G


The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic indicators of outcome at presentation to the orthopaedic surgeon, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Our aim was to use this information in a pragmatic, clinic-based approach so that surgical decision making could be optimized to benefit the patient in their remaining lifetime.

Patients and Methods

A cohort analysis was undertaken of all patients with metastatic disease of the prostate who presented to a regional orthopaedic centre in the United Kingdom between 2003 and 2016. Biochemical data were collected in addition to disease and demographic data. These included: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at orthopaedic presentation; haemoglobin (Hb); platelets (plt); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); albumin (Alb); and corrected calcium (CaC). Statistical analysis included Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, and a Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to the data.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1100 - 1105
1 Aug 2018
Howard EL Shepherd KL Cribb G Cool P


The aim of this study was to validate the Mirels score in predicting pathological fractures in metastatic disease of the lower limb.

Patients and Methods

A total of 62 patients with confirmed metastatic disease met the inclusion criteria. Of the 62 patients, 32 were female and 30 were male. The mean age of patients was 65 years (35 to 89). The primary malignancy originated from the breast in 27 (44%) patients, prostate in 15 (24%) patients, kidney in seven (11%), and lung in four (6%) of patients. One patient (2%) had metastatic carcinoma from the lacrimal gland, two patients (3%) had multiple myeloma, one patient (2%) had lymphoma of bone, and five patients (8%) had metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary. Plain radiographs at the time of initial presentation were scored using Mirels system by the four authors. The radiographic components of the score (anatomical site, size, and radiographic appearance) were scored two weeks apart. Inter- and intraobserver reliability were calculated with Fleiss’ kappa test. Bland-Altman plots were created to compare the variances of the individual components of the score and the total Mirels score.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 101 - 108
1 Jan 2018
Stevenson JD Kumar VS Cribb GL Cool P


Dislocation rates are reportedly lower in patients requiring proximal femoral hemiarthroplasty than for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for neoplasia. Without acetabular replacement, pain due to acetabular wear necessitating revision surgery has been described. We aimed to determine whether wear of the native acetabulum following hemiarthroplasty necessitates revision surgery with secondary replacement of the acetabulum after proximal femoral replacement (PFR) for tumour reconstruction.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed 100 consecutive PFRs performed between January 2003 and January 2013 without acetabular resurfacing. The procedure was undertaken in 74 patients with metastases, for a primary bone tumour in 20 and for myeloma in six. There were 48 male and 52 female patients, with a mean age of 61.4 years (19 to 85) and median follow-up of two years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5 to 3.7 years). In total, 52 patients presented with a pathological fracture and six presented with failed fixation of a previously instrumented pathological fracture.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 4 | Pages 224 - 230
1 Apr 2017
Cool P Cribb G


In this cross sectional study, the impact and the efficacy of a surveillance programme for sarcomas of the extremities was analysed.


All patients who had treatment with curative intent for a high-grade sarcoma and were diagnosed before 2014 were included and followed for a minimum of two years.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1542 - 1547
1 Nov 2016
Sampath Kumar V Tyrrell PNM Singh J Gregory J Cribb GL Cool P


The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical and radiological surveillance of cartilage tumours with low biological activity is appropriate.

Patients and Methods

A total of 98 patients with an intramedullary cartilage neoplasm in a long bone met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. These patients had undergone a total of 384 scans. Patients with radiological follow-up of more than three years (46 patients) were divided into two groups: an active group (11 patients) and a latent group (35 patients).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1593 - 1603
1 Dec 2015
Cool P Ockendon M

Plots are an elegant and effective way to represent data. At their best they encourage the reader and promote comprehension. A graphical representation can give a far more intuitive feel to the pattern of results in the study than a list of numerical data, or the result of a statistical calculation.

The temptation to exaggerate differences or relationships between variables by using broken axes, overlaid axes, or inconsistent scaling between plots should be avoided.

A plot should be self-explanatory and not complicated. It should make good use of the available space. The axes should be scaled appropriately and labelled with an appropriate dimension.

Plots are recognised statistical methods of presenting data and usually require specialised statistical software to create them. The statistical analysis and methods to generate the plots are as important as the methodology of the study itself. The software, including dates and version numbers, as well as statistical tests should be appropriately referenced.

Following some of the guidance provided in this article will enhance a manuscript.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1593–1603.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1284 - 1290
1 Sep 2015
Furtado S Grimer RJ Cool P Murray SA Briggs T Fulton J Grant K Gerrand CH

Patients who have limb amputation for musculoskeletal tumours are a rare group of cancer survivors. This was a prospective cross-sectional survey of patients from five specialist centres for sarcoma surgery in England. Physical function, pain and quality of life (QOL) outcomes were collected after lower extremity amputation for bone or soft-tissue tumours to evaluate the survivorship experience and inform service provision.

Of 250 patients, 105 (42%) responded between September 2012 and June 2013. From these, completed questionnaires were received from 100 patients with a mean age of 53.6 years (19 to 91). In total 60 (62%) were male and 37 (38%) were female (three not specified). The diagnosis was primary bone sarcoma in 63 and soft-tissue tumour in 37. A total of 20 tumours were located in the hip or pelvis, 31 above the knee, 32 between the knee and ankle and 17 in the ankle or foot. In total 22 had hemipelvectomy, nine hip disarticulation, 35 transfemoral amputation, one knee disarticulation, 30 transtibial amputation, two toe amputations and one rotationplasty. The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) differed by amputation level, with poorer scores at higher levels (p < 0.001). Many reported significant pain. In addition, TESS was negatively associated with increasing age, and pain interference scores. QOL for Cancer Survivors was significantly correlated with TESS (p < 0.001). This relationship appeared driven by pain interference scores.

This unprecedented national survey confirms amputation level is linked to physical function, but not QOL or pain measures. Pain and physical function significantly impact on QOL. These results are helpful in managing the expectations of patients about treatment and addressing their complex needs.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1284–90.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 384 - 390
1 Mar 2013
Stevenson JD Jaiswal A Gregory JJ Mangham DC Cribb G Cool P

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign disease of the synovium of joints and tendon sheaths, which may be locally aggressive. We present 18 patients with diffuse-type PVNS of the foot and ankle followed for a mean of 5.1 years (2 to 11.8). There were seven men and 11 women, with a mean age of 42 years (18 to 73). A total of 13 patients underwent open or arthroscopic synovectomy, without post-operative radiotherapy. One had surgery at the referring unit before presentation with residual tibiotalar PVNS. The four patients who were managed non-operatively remain symptomatically controlled and under clinical and radiological surveillance. At final follow-up the mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 93.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85 to 100), the mean Toronto Extremity Salvage Score was 92 (95% CI 82 to 100) and the mean American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons foot and ankle score was 89 (95% CI 79 to 100). The lesion in the patient with residual PVNS resolved radiologically without further intervention six years after surgery. Targeted synovectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy can result in excellent outcomes, without recurrence. Asymptomatic patients can be successfully managed non-operatively. This is the first series to report clinical outcome scores for patients with diffuse-type PVNS of the foot and ankle.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:384–90.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 2 | Pages 277 - 277
1 Feb 2005

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 3 | Pages 462 - 462
1 Apr 2001

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 255 - 260
1 Mar 2000
Grimer RJ Belthur M Carter SR Tillman RM Cool P

Limb salvage is now customary in the treatment of primary bone tumours. The proximal tibia is a frequent site for these neoplasms but reconstruction, especially in children, is a formidable challenge. We reviewed 20 children with extendible replacements of the proximal tibia, all with a minimum follow-up of five years. Five died from their disease and, of the remaining 15, four had above-knee amputations for complications. Infection occurred in seven patients; in five it was related to the lengthening procedure. Aseptic loosening is inevitable in the younger children and only two have avoided a revision, amputation or other major complication; both were aged 12 years at the time of the initial surgery. Despite this, 11 children are alive with a functioning leg and a mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score of 83%. The lengthening mechanisms used in our series required extensive open operations. We are now using a simpler, minimally invasive, technique which we hope will decrease the incidence of complications. At present, the use of extendible prostheses of the proximal tibia remains an experimental procedure.