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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 7 | Pages 341 - 350
1 Jul 2020
Marwan Y Cohen D Alotaibi M Addar A Bernstein M Hamdy R


To systematically review the outcomes and complications of cosmetic stature lengthening.


PubMed and Embase were searched on 10 November 2019 by three reviewers independently, and all relevant studies in English published up to that date were considered based on predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search was done using “cosmetic lengthening” and “stature lengthening” as key terms. The Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was used to screen the articles.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1556 - 1561
1 Nov 2011
Singhal R Perry DC Khan FN Cohen D Stevenson HL James LA Sampath JS Bruce CE

Clinical prediction algorithms are used to differentiate transient synovitis from septic arthritis. These algorithms typically include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), although in clinical practice measurement of the C-reactive protein (CRP) has largely replaced the ESR. We evaluated the use of CRP in a predictive algorithm.

The records of 311 children with an effusion of the hip, which was confirmed on ultrasound, were reviewed (mean age 5.3 years (0.2 to 15.1)). Of these, 269 resolved without intervention and without long-term sequelae and were considered to have had transient synovitis. The remaining 42 underwent arthrotomy because of suspicion of septic arthritis. Infection was confirmed in 29 (18 had micro-organisms isolated and 11 had a high synovial fluid white cell count). In the remaining 13 no evidence of infection was found and they were also considered to have had transient synovitis. In total 29 hips were categorised as septic arthritis and 282 as transient synovitis. The temperature, weight-bearing status, peripheral white blood cell count and CRP was reviewed in each patient.

A CRP > 20 mg/l was the strongest independent risk factor for septic arthritis (odds ratio 81.9, p < 0.001). A multivariable prediction model revealed that only two determinants (weight-bearing status and CRP > 20 mg/l) were independent in differentiating septic arthritis from transient synovitis. Individuals with neither predictor had a < 1% probability of septic arthritis, but those with both had a 74% probability of septic arthritis. A two-variable algorithm can therefore quantify the risk of septic arthritis, and is an excellent negative predictor.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 1 | Pages 33 - 41
1 Jan 2000
Hernigou P Cohen D

The risk of articular penetration during tibial nailing is well known, but the incidence of unrecognised damage to joint cartilage has not been described. We have identified this complication in the treatment of tibial fractures, described the anatomical structures at risk and examined the most appropriate site of entry for tibial nailing in relation to the shape of the bone, the design of the nail and the surgical approach.

We studied the relationship between the intra-articular structures of the knee and the entry point used for nailing in 54 tibiae from cadavers. The results showed that the safe zone in some bones is smaller than the size of standard reamers and the proximal part of some nails. The structures at risk are the anterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci, the anterior part of the medial and lateral plateaux and the ligamentum transversum. This was confirmed by observations made after nailing 12 pairs of cadaver knees. A retrospective radiological analysis of 30 patients who had undergone tibial nailing identified eight at risk according to the entry point and the size of the nail. Unrecognised articular penetration and damage during surgery were confirmed in four.

Although intramedullary nailing has been shown to be a successful method for treating fractures of the tibia, one of the most common problems after bony union is pain in the knee. Unrecognised intra-articular injury of the knee may be one cause of this.