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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1520 - 1525
1 Dec 2019
Clark NJ Samuelsen BT Alentorn-Geli E Assenmacher AT Cofield RH Sperling JW Sánchez-Sotelo J


Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) reliably improves shoulder pain and function for a variety of indications. However, the safety and efficacy of RSA in elderly patients is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to report the mortality, morbidity, complications, reoperations, and outcomes of primary RSA in patients aged > 80 years.

Patients and Methods

Between 2004 and 2013, 242 consecutive primary RSAs were performed in patients aged > 80 years (mean 83.3 years (sd 3.1)). Of these, 53 were lost to follow-up before two years and ten had died within two years of surgery, leaving 179 for analysis of survivorship, pain, motion, and strength at a minimum of two years or until revision surgery. All 242 patients were considered for the analysis of 90-day, one-year, and overall mortality, medical complications (90-day and overall), surgical complications, and reoperations. The indications for surgery included rotator cuff arthropathy, osteoarthritis, fracture, the sequela of trauma, avascular necrosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. A retrospective review of the medical records was performed to collect all variables. Survivorship free of revision surgery was calculated at two and five years.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1491 - 1492
1 Nov 2018
Wagner ER Hevesi M Houdek MT Cofield RH Sperling JW Sanchez-Sotelo J

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1493 - 1498
1 Nov 2018
Wagner ER Hevesi M Houdek MT Cofield RH Sperling JW Sanchez-Sotelo J


Patients with a failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) have limited salvage options. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of revision RSA when used as a salvage procedure for a failed primary RSA.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed all revision RSAs performed for a failed primary RSA between 2006 and 2012, excluding patients with a follow-up of less than two years. A total of 27 revision RSAs were included in the study. The mean age of the patients at the time of revision was 70 years (58 to 82). Of the 27 patients, 14 (52% were female). The mean follow-up was 4.4 years (2 to 10).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 2 | Pages 224 - 228
1 Feb 2014
Simone JP Streubel PH Athwal GS Sperling JW Schleck CD Cofield RH

We assessed the clinical results, radiographic outcomes and complications of patients undergoing total shoulder replacement (TSR) for osteoarthritis with concurrent repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1996 and 2010, 45 of 932 patients (4.8%) undergoing TSR for osteoarthritis underwent rotator cuff repair. The final study group comprised 33 patients with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (3 months to 13 years). Tears were classified into small (10), medium (14), large (9) or massive (0). On a scale of 1 to 5, pain decreased from a mean of 4.7 to 1.7 (p = < 0.0001), the mean forward elevation improved from 99° to 139° (p = < 0.0001), and the mean external rotation improved from 20° (0° to 75°) to 49° (20° to 80°) (p = < 0.0001). The improvement in elevation was greater in those with a small tear (p = 0.03). Radiographic evidence of instability developed in six patients with medium or large tears, indicating lack of rotator cuff healing. In all, six glenoid components, including one with instability, were radiologically at risk of loosening. Complications were noted in five patients, all with medium or large tears; four of these had symptomatic instability and one sustained a late peri-prosthetic fracture. Four patients (12%) required further surgery, three with instability and one with a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture.

Consideration should be given to performing rotator cuff repair for stable shoulders during anatomical TSR, but reverse replacement should be considered for older, less active patients with larger tears.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:224–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 668 - 672
1 May 2013
Abdel MP Hattrup SJ Sperling JW Cofield RH Kreofsky CR Sanchez-Sotelo J

Instability after arthroplasty of the shoulder is difficult to correct surgically. Soft-tissue procedures and revision surgery using unconstrained anatomical components are associated with a high rate of failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the results of revision of an unstable anatomical shoulder arthroplasty to a reverse design prosthesis. Between 2004 and 2007, 33 unstable anatomical shoulder arthroplasties were revised to a reverse design. The mean age of the patients was 71 years (53 to 86) and their mean follow-up was 42 months (25 to 71). The mean time to revision was 26 months (4 to 164). Pain scores improved significantly (pre-operative visual analogue scale (VAS) of 7.2 (sd 1.6); most recent VAS 2.2 (sd 1.9); p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in mean active forward elevation from 40.2° (sd 27.3) to 97.0° (sd 36.2) (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in internal (p = 0.93) or external rotation (p = 0.40). Radiological findings included notching in five shoulders (15%) and heterotopic ossification of the inferior capsular region in three (9%). At the last follow-up 31 shoulders (94%) were stable. The remaining two shoulders dislocated at 2.5 weeks and three months post-operatively, respectively. According to the Neer rating system, there were 13 excellent (40%), ten satisfactory (30%) and ten unsatisfactory results (30%). Revision of hemiarthroplasty or anatomical total shoulder replacement for instability using a reverse design prosthesis gives good short-term results.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:668–72.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1513 - 1517
1 Nov 2011
Singh JA Sperling JW Cofield RH

Our objective was to examine the rate of revision and its predictive factors in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to examine five-, ten- and 20-year revision-free survival following TSA and the predictive factors. We examined patient characteristics (age, gender, body mass index, comorbidity), implant fixation (cemented versus uncemented), American Society of Anesthesiologists class and underlying diagnosis. Univariate and multivariable adjusted hazard rates were calculated using Cox regression analysis. A total of 2207 patients underwent 2588 TSAs. Their mean age was 65.0 years (19 to 91) and 1163 (53%) were women; osteoarthritis was the underlying diagnosis in 1640 shoulders (63%). In all, 212 TSAs (8.2%) were revised during the follow-up period. At five, ten and 20 years, survival rates were 94.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93.2 to 95.3), 90.2% (95% CI 88.7 to 91.7) and 81.4% (95% CI 78.4 to 84.5), respectively. In multivariable analyses men had a higher hazard ratio of revision of 1.72 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.31) (p < 0.01) compared with women, and those with rotator cuff disease had a hazard ratio of 4.71 (95% CI 2.09 to 10.59) (p < 0.001) compared with patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We concluded that male gender and rotator cuff disease are independent risk factors for revision after TSA. Future studies are needed to understand the biological rationale for these differences.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 7 | Pages 970 - 974
1 Jul 2010
Foruria AM Sperling JW Ankem HK Oh LS Cofield RH

This study was performed to review the safety and outcome of total shoulder replacements in patients who are ≥ 80 years of age. A total of 50 total shoulder replacements in 44 patients at a mean age of 82 years (80 to 89) were studied. Their health and shoulder status, the operation and post-operative course were analysed, including pain, movement, patient satisfaction, medical and surgical complications, radiographs, the need for revision surgery, and implant and patient survival. A total of 27 patients had an ASA classification of III or IV and medical abnormalities were common. Of the 13 shoulders with bony deficiency of the glenoid, nine required grafting. The duration of hospital stay was prolonged and blood transfusions were common. There were no peri-operative deaths. The mean follow-up was for 5.5 years (2 to 12). Pain was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) and movement improved in active elevation and both external and internal rotation (p < 0.001). Using the Neer scale for assessing outcome, 40 (80%) shoulders had an excellent or satisfactory result. There were medical or surgical complications in 17 cases. Four shoulders developed radiological evidence of loosened glenoid components, and three of these had a poor outcome. Three other shoulders required revision, two for instability. By the time of this review 39 of the patients had died from unrelated causes at a mean of 7.5 years (0.8 to 16.4) after surgery.

Total shoulder replacement is a relatively effective treatment in this elderly group of patients. However, there is a requirement for more intense patient care in the peri-operative period, and non-fatal medical or surgical complications are common. Most of these elderly patients will have a comfortable functional shoulder for the rest of their lives.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 75 - 81
1 Jan 2009
Cil A Veillette CJH Sanchez-Sotelo J Sperling JW Schleck C Cofield RH

Between 1976 and 2004, 38 revision arthroplasties (35 patients) were performed for aseptic loosening of the humeral component. The mean interval from primary arthroplasty to revision was 7.1 years (0.4 to 16.6). A total of 35 shoulders (32 patients) were available for review at a mean follow-up of seven years (2 to 19.3).

Pre-operatively, 34 patients (97%) had moderate or severe pain; at final follow-up, 29 (83%) had no or only mild pain (p < 0.0001). The mean active abduction improved from 88° to 107° (p < 0.01); and the mean external rotation from 37° to 46° (p = 0.27). Excellent or satisfactory results were achieved in 25 patients (71%) according to the modified Neer rating system. Humeral components were cemented in 29, with ingrowth implants used in nine cases. There were 19 of standard length and 17 were longer (two were custom replacements and are not included). Bone grafting was required for defects in 11 humeri. Only two glenoid components were left unrevised. Intra-operative complications included cement extrusion in eight cases, fracture of the shaft of the humerus is two and of the tuberosity in four. There were four re-operations, one for recurrent humeral loosening, with 89% survival free of re-operations at ten years.

Revision surgery for aseptic loosening of the humeral component provides reliable pain relief and modest improvement of movement, although there is a substantial risk of intra-operative complications. Revision to a total shoulder replacement gives better results than to a hemiarthroplasty.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 460 - 465
1 Apr 2008
Strickland JP Sperling JW Cofield RH

While frequently discussed as a standard treatment for the management of an infected shoulder replacement, there is little information on the outcome of two-stage re-implantation.

We examined the outcome of 17 consecutive patients (19 shoulders) who were treated between 1995 and 2004 with a two-stage re-implantation for the treatment of a deep-infection after shoulder replacement. All 19 shoulders were followed for a minimum of two years or until the time of further revision surgery. The mean clinical follow-up was for 35 months (24 to 80). The mean radiological follow-up was 27 months (7 to 80). There were two excellent results, four satisfactory and 13 unsatisfactory. In 12 of the 19 shoulders (63%) infection was considered to be eradicated. The mean pain score improved from 4.2 (3 to 5 (out of 5)) to 1.8 (1 to 4). The mean elevation improved from 42° (0° to 140°) to 89° (0° to 165°), mean external rotation from 30° (0° to 90°) to 43° (0° to 90°), and mean internal rotation from the sacrum to L5. There were 14 complications.

Our study suggests that two-stage re-implantation for an infected shoulder replacement is associated with a high rate of unsatisfactory results, marginal success at eradicating infection and a high complication rate.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1184 - 1187
1 Sep 2007
Rispoli DM Sperling JW Athwal GS Schleck CD Cofield RH

We have examined the relief from pain and the functional outcome in 18 patients who underwent resection arthroplasty of the shoulder as a salvage operation between 1988 and 2002. The indications included failed shoulder replacement in 17, with infection in 13, and chronic septic arthritis in one. The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (2.5 to 16.6). Two intra-operative fractures of the humerus occurred, both of which healed.

The level of pain was significantly decreased (t-test, p < 0.001) but five patients continued to have moderate to severe pain. The mean active elevation was 70° (0° to 150°) postoperatively and represented an improvement from 39° (0° to 140°) (t-test, p = 0.003), but internal and external rotation were hardly changed. The mean number of positive answers on the 12-question Simple Shoulder Test was 3.1 (0 to 12) but the shoulder was generally comfortable when the arm was positioned at rest by the side. The mean post-operative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon’s score was 36 (8 to 73).

Despite applying this procedure principally to failed shoulder replacements, the results were similar to those reported in the literature for patients after severe fracture-dislocation. Reduction of pain is possible in one half to two-thirds of patients. The outcome of this operation in providing relief from pain cannot be guaranteed, but the shoulder is usually comfortable at rest, albeit with profound functional limitations.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 4 | Pages 496 - 500
1 Apr 2005
Mileti J Sperling JW Cofield RH Harrington JR Hoskin TL

There are theoretical and practical advantages to modular rather than monoblock designs of prostheses for shoulder arthroplasty, but there are no reported studies which specifically compare the clinical and radiological results of their use. We have compared the results of unconstrained total shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis using both types of implant. The monoblock design was used between 1992 and 1995 and the modular design after 1995. Both had cemented all-polyethylene glenoids, the monoblock with matched and the modular with mismatched radii of curvature. There were 34 consecutive shoulders in each group with a mean follow-up of 6.1 years in the first and 5.2 years in the second.

There were no significant differences in improvement of pain scores, active elevation, external rotation, internal rotation, patient satisfaction, or the Neer ratings between the two groups. Two of 28 glenoid components in the first group and six of 30 in the second met the criteria for being radiologically at risk for loosening (p = 0.25). There were no significant differences in clinical outcome or radiological changes between the first- and second-generation designs of implant for shoulder arthroplasty.