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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 4 | Pages 193 - 200
23 Apr 2024
Reynolds A Doyle R Boughton O Cobb J Muirhead-Allwood S Jeffers J


Manual impaction, with a mallet and introducer, remains the standard method of installing cementless acetabular cups during total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aims to quantify the accuracy and precision of manual impaction strikes during the seating of an acetabular component. This understanding aims to help improve impaction surgical techniques and inform the development of future technologies.


Posterior approach THAs were carried out on three cadavers by an expert orthopaedic surgeon. An instrumented mallet and introducer were used to insert cementless acetabular cups. The motion of the mallet, relative to the introducer, was analyzed for a total of 110 strikes split into low-, medium-, and high-effort strikes. Three parameters were extracted from these data: strike vector, strike offset, and mallet face alignment.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 3 | Pages 129 - 137
1 Mar 2023
Patel A Edwards TC Jones G Liddle AD Cobb J Garner A


The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score examines patient performance in relation to energy expenditure before and after knee arthroplasty. This study assesses its use in a knee arthroplasty population in comparison with the widely used Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol five-dimension index (EQ-5D), which are reported to be limited by ceiling effects.


A total of 116 patients with OKS, EQ-5D, and MET scores before, and at least six months following, unilateral primary knee arthroplasty were identified from a database. Procedures were performed by a single surgeon between 2014 and 2019 consecutively. Scores were analyzed for normality, skewness, kurtosis, and the presence of ceiling/floor effects. Concurrent validity between the MET score, OKS, and EQ-5D was assessed using Spearman’s rank.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 140
24 Feb 2021
Logishetty K Edwards TC Subbiah Ponniah H Ahmed M Liddle AD Cobb J Clark C


Restarting planned surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic is a clinical and societal priority, but it is unknown whether it can be done safely and include high-risk or complex cases. We developed a Surgical Prioritization and Allocation Guide (SPAG). Here, we validate its effectiveness and safety in COVID-free sites.


A multidisciplinary surgical prioritization committee developed the SPAG, incorporating procedural urgency, shared decision-making, patient safety, and biopsychosocial factors; and applied it to 1,142 adult patients awaiting orthopaedic surgery. Patients were stratified into four priority groups and underwent surgery at three COVID-free sites, including one with access to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) and specialist resources. Safety was assessed by the number of patients requiring inpatient postoperative HDU/ICU admission, contracting COVID-19 within 14 days postoperatively, and mortality within 30 days postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 922 - 928
1 Aug 2019
Garner A van Arkel RJ Cobb J


There has been a recent resurgence in interest in combined partial knee arthroplasty (PKA) as an alternative to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The varied terminology used to describe these procedures leads to confusion and ambiguity in communication between surgeons, allied health professionals, and patients. A standardized classification system is required for patient safety, accurate clinical record-keeping, clear communication, correct coding for appropriate remuneration, and joint registry data collection.

Materials and Methods

An advanced PubMed search was conducted, using medical subject headings (MeSH) to identify terms and abbreviations used to describe knee arthroplasty procedures. The search related to TKA, unicompartmental (UKA), patellofemoral (PFA), and combined PKA procedures. Surveys were conducted of orthopaedic surgeons, trainees, and biomechanical engineers, who were asked which of the descriptive terms and abbreviations identified from the literature search they found most intuitive and appropriate to describe each procedure. The results were used to determine a popular consensus.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 10 | Pages 602 - 609
1 Oct 2017
Jin A Cobb J Hansen U Bhattacharya R Reinhard C Vo N Atwood R Li J Karunaratne A Wiles C Abel R


Bisphosphonates (BP) are the first-line treatment for preventing fragility fractures. However, concern regarding their efficacy is growing because bisphosphonate is associated with over-suppression of remodelling and accumulation of microcracks. While dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning may show a gain in bone density, the impact of this class of drug on mechanical properties remains unclear. We therefore sought to quantify the mechanical strength of bone treated with BP (oral alendronate), and correlate data with the microarchitecture and density of microcracks in comparison with untreated controls.


Trabecular bone from hip fracture patients treated with BP (n = 10) was compared with naïve fractured (n = 14) and non-fractured controls (n = 6). Trabecular cores were synchrotron scanned and micro-CT scanned for microstructural analysis, including quantification of bone volume fraction, microarchitecture and microcracks. The specimens were then mechanically tested in compression.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 3 | Pages 315 - 320
1 Mar 2011
Hart AJ Ilo K Underwood R Cann P Henckel J Lewis A Cobb J Skinner J

We measured the orientation of the acetabular and femoral components in 45 patients (33 men, 12 women) with a mean age of 53.4 years (30 to 74) who had undergone revision of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings. Three-dimensional CT was used to measure the inclination and version of the acetabular component, femoral version and the horizontal femoral offset, and the linear wear of the removed acetabular components was measured using a roundness machine.

We found that acetabular version and combined version of the acetabular and femoral components were weakly positively correlated with the rate of wear. The acetabular inclination angle was strongly positively correlated with the rate of wear. Femoral version was weakly negatively correlated with the rate of wear. Application of a threshold of > 5 μm/year for the rate of wear in order to separate the revisions into low or high wearing groups showed that more high wearing components were implanted outside Lewinnek’s safe zone, but that this was mainly due to the inclination of the acetabular component, which was the only parameter that significantly differed between the groups.

We were unable to show that excess version of the acetabular component alone or combined with femoral version was associated with an increase in the rate of wear based on our assessment of version using CT.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 738 - 744
1 Jun 2009
Hart AJ Sabah S Henckel J Lewis A Cobb J Sampson B Mitchell A Skinner JA

We carried out metal artefact-reduction MRI, three-dimensional CT measurement of the position of the component and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of cobalt and chromium levels in whole blood on 26 patients with unexplained pain following metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty.

MRI showed periprosthetic lesions around 16 hips, with 14 collections of fluid and two soft-tissue masses. The lesions were seen in both men and women and in symptomatic and asymptomatic hips. Using three-dimensional CT, the median inclination of the acetabular component was found to be 55° and its positioning was outside the Lewinnek safe zone in 13 of 16 cases. Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the levels of blood metal ions tended to be higher in painful compared with well-functioning metal-on-metal hips.

These three clinically useful investigations can help to determine the cause of failure of the implant, predict the need for future revision and aid the choice of revision prostheses.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 2 | Pages 188 - 197
1 Feb 2006
Cobb J Henckel J Gomes P Harris S Jakopec M Rodriguez F Barrett A Davies B

We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty comparing the performance of the Acrobot system with conventional surgery. A total of 27 patients (28 knees) awaiting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were randomly allocated to have the operation performed conventionally or with the assistance of the Acrobot. The primary outcome measurement was the angle of tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane, measured by CT. Other secondary parameters were evaluated and are reported.

All of the Acrobot group had tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane within 2° of the planned position, while only 40% of the conventional group achieved this level of accuracy. While the operations took longer, no adverse effects were noted, and there was a trend towards improvement in performance with increasing accuracy based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and American Knee Society scores at six weeks and three months. The Acrobot device allows the surgeon to reproduce a pre-operative plan more reliably than is possible using conventional techniques which may have clinical advantages.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 1 | Pages 27 - 30
1 Jan 2004
Hallam P Haddad F Cobb J

We have investigated nine patients with cemented Furlong (JRI, London, UK) titanium hip replacements who presented with early pain despite a well-fixed, aseptic prosthesis. All were followed up clinically and radiologically at regular intervals. Pain was located in the thigh and was worse at night. Radiographs showed cortical hypertrophy of the femur around the tip of the stem. Eight of the nine patients subsequently required single-stage revision using an uncemented prosthesis, which relieved the pain. At revision, the pH of the tip of the stem was found to be highly acidic with macroscopic evidence of corrosion consisting of multiple layers of titanium oxides when studied by X-ray dispersive analysis. Cemented titanium implants have a potential for crevice corrosion leading to cortical hypertrophy and intractable pain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 3 | Pages 498 - 500
1 May 1991
Stoker D Cobb J Pringle J

Needle biopsies, performed on 208 consecutive patients and interpreted at the London Bone Tumour Service over a two-year period, were reviewed. A correct diagnosis was reached in 97% (133 out of 137) using this technique alone. Needle biopsy is safe and accurate when undertaken in consultation within a bone tumour service; it offers considerable advantages to both patient and surgeon over conventional open biopsy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 6 | Pages 993 - 995
1 Nov 1990
Cobb J

There is no firm published evidence to support the use of closed suction drains. Over 20 years ago, large studies by the Public Health Laboratory Service and the National Research Council found that drains were risk factors for wound infection. A prospective randomised study of the use of closed suction drains after surgery for fractured neck of femur in 70 patients failed to show that drains improved wound healing. Drained cases had more complications.