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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1395 - 1398
1 Oct 2016
Smith CD Booker SJ Uppal HS Kitson J Bunker TD


Despite the expansion of arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder, the open deltopectoral approach is increasingly used for the fixation of fractures and arthroplasty of the shoulder. The anatomy of the terminal branches of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) has not been described before. We undertook an investigation to correct this omission.

Patients and Methods

The vascular anatomy encountered during 100 consecutive elective deltopectoral approaches was recorded, and the common variants of the terminal branches of the PCHA are described.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 657 - 659
1 May 2013
Bunker TD Cosker TDA Dunkerley S Kitson J Smith CD

Despite the expansion of arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder, the open deltopectoral approach to the shoulder is still frequently used, for example in fracture fixation and shoulder replacement. However, it is sometimes accompanied by unexpected bleeding. The cephalic vein is the landmark for the deltopectoral interval, yet its intimate relationship with the deltoid artery, and the anatomical variations in that structure, have not previously been documented.

In this study the vascular anatomy encountered during 100 consecutive elective deltopectoral approaches was recorded and the common variants described. Two common variants of the deltoid artery were encountered. In type I (71%) it crosses the interval and tunnels into the deltoid muscle without encountering the cephalic vein. However, in type II (21%) it crosses the interval, reaches the cephalic vein and then runs down, medial to and behind it, giving off several small arterial branches that return back across the interval to the pectoralis major. Several minor variations were also seen (8%).

These variations in the deltoid artery have not previously been described and may lead to confusion and unexpected bleeding during this standard anterior surgical approach to the shoulder.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:657–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 5 | Pages 577 - 583
1 May 2012
Smith CD Guyver P Bunker TD

The outcome of an anatomical shoulder replacement depends on an intact rotator cuff. In 1981 Grammont designed a novel large-head reverse shoulder replacement for patients with cuff deficiency. Such has been the success of this replacement that it has led to a rapid expansion of the indications. We performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the functional outcome of each indication for the reverse shoulder replacement. Secondary outcome measures of range of movement, pain scores and complication rates are also presented.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 57 - 61
1 Jan 2011
Naveed MA Kitson J Bunker TD

The combination of an irreparable tear of the rotator cuff and destructive arthritis of the shoulder joint may cause severe pain, disability and loss of independence in the aged. Standard anatomical shoulder replacements depend on a functioning rotator cuff, and hence may fail in the presence of tears in the cuff. Many designs of non-anatomical constrained or semi-constrained prostheses have been developed for cuff tear arthropathy, but have proved unsatisfactory and were abandoned. The DePuy Delta III reverse prosthesis, designed by Grammont, medialises and stabilises the centre of rotation of the shoulder joint and has shown early promise. This study evaluated the mid-term clinical and radiological results of this arthroplasty in a consecutive series of 50 shoulders in 43 patients with a painful pseudoparalysis due to an irreparable cuff tear and destructive arthritis, performed over a period of seven years by a single surgeon. A follow-up of 98% was achieved, with a mean duration of 39 months (8 to 81). The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 81 years (59 to 95). The female to male ratio was 5:1. During the seven years, six patients died of natural causes. The clinical outcome was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow score, the Oxford Shoulder Score and the Short-form 36 score. A radiological review was performed using the Sirveaux score for scapular notching.

The mean American Shoulder and Elbow score was 19 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14 to 23) pre-operatively, and 65 (95% CI 48 to 82) (paired t-test, p < 0.001) at final follow-up. The mean Oxford score was 44 (95% CI 40 to 51) pre-operatively and 23 (95% CI 18 to 28) (paired t-test, p < 0.001) at final follow-up.

The mean maximum elevation improved from 55° pre-operatively to 105° at final follow-up. There were seven complications during the whole series, although only four patients required further surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1594 - 1600
1 Dec 2009
Khan A Bunker TD Kitson JB

There are no long-term published results on the survival of a third-generation cemented total shoulder replacement. We describe a clinical and radiological study of the Aequalis total shoulder replacement for a minimum of ten years. Between September 1996 and May 1998, 39 consecutive patients underwent a primary cemented total shoulder replacement using this prosthesis. Data were collected prospectively on all patients each year, for a minimum of ten years, or until death or failure of the prosthesis. At a follow-up of at least ten years, 12 patients had died with the prosthesis intact and two had emigrated, leaving 25 available for clinical review. Of these, 13 had rheumatoid arthritis and 12 osteoarthritis. One refused radiological review leaving 24 with fresh radiographs.

Survivorship at ten years was 100% for the humeral component and 92% for the glenoid component. The incidence of lucent lines was low. No humeral component was thought to be at risk and only two glenoid components. The osteoarthritic group gained a mean 65° in forward flexion and their Constant score improved by a mean 41.4 points (13 to 55). The rheumatoid group gained a mean of 24° in flexion and their Constant score improved by 29.4 points. This difference may have been due to failure of the rotator cuff in 75% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Thus a third-generation total shoulder replacement gives an excellent result in patients with osteoarthritis and an intact rotator cuff. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have a 75% risk of failure of the rotator cuff at ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 6 | Pages 868 - 872
1 Aug 2001
Smith SP Bunker TD

We reviewed 12 patients with primary glenoid dysplasia. Ten were assessed clinically and two from case notes and radiographs. We identified two groups according to the age at onset of symptoms. The first (seven patients) consisted of boys and younger men, all of whom developed symptoms before the age of 40 years. All four children were free from pain, whereas the three adults in this group had varying degrees of this. Four patients had symptoms of instability. The second group consisted of older men (five patients) all of whom had noted the onset of symptoms, in the form of pain and stiffness, after the age of 40 years. All five had radiological evidence of osteoarthritis.

Although the four children in our study had minimal symptoms, all eight adults had ongoing shoulder pain and dysfunction, despite a specific rehabilitation programme. Four patients required surgery; one had posterior stabilisation for instability and three arthroplasties of the shoulder for osteoarthritis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 5 | Pages 768 - 773
1 Jul 2000
Bunker TD Reilly J Baird KS Hamblen DL

Frozen shoulder is a chronic fibrosing condition of the capsule of the joint. The predominant cells involved are fibroblasts and myofibroblasts which lay down a dense matrix of type-I and type-III collagen within the capsule. This subsequently contracts leading to the typical features of pain and stiffness. Cytokines and growth factors regulate the growth and function of the fibroblasts of connective tissue and remodelling of the matrix is controlled by the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors.

Our aim was to determine whether there was an abnormal expression or secretion of cytokines, growth factors and MMPs in tissue samples from 14 patients with frozen shoulder using the reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) technique and to compare the findings with those in tissue from four normal control shoulders and from five patients with Dupuytren’s contracture.

Tissue from frozen shoulders demonstrated the presence of mRNA for a large number of cytokines and growth factors although the frequency was only slightly higher than in the control tissue. The frequency for a positive signal for the proinflammatory cytokines Il-1β and TNF-α and TNF-β, was not as great as in the Dupuytren’s tissue. The presence of mRNA for fibrogenic growth factors was, however, more similar to that obtained in the control and Dupuytren’s tissue. This correlated with the histological findings which in most specimens showed a dense fibrous tissue response with few cells other than mature fibroblasts and with very little evidence of any active inflammatory cell process. Positive expressions of the mRNA for the MMPs were also increased, together with their natural inhibitor TIMP. The notable exception compared with control and Dupuytren’s tissue was the absence of MMP-14, which is known to be a membrane-type MMP required for the activation of MMP-2 (gelatinase A).

Understanding the control mechanisms which play a part in the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder may lead to the development of new regimes of treatment for this common, protracted and painful chronic fibrosing condition.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 1 | Pages 182 - 183
1 Jan 1998

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 618 - 620
1 Jul 1997
Bunker TD Esler CNA Leach WJ

We describe an apparently unreported finding during hip operations: a tear at the insertion of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. This defect may well be known to many surgeons with experience of hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the neck of the femur, but a Medline search has failed to find a previous description.

We made a prospective study of 50 consecutive patients with fractures of the neck of the femur to quantify the incidence of this condition: 11 (22%) had such a tear.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 2 | Pages 340 - 340
1 Mar 1996
Bunker TD