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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 3 | Pages 29 - 34
13 Mar 2020
Stirling P Middleton SD Brenkel IJ Walmsley PJ


The primary aim of this study was to describe a baseline comparison of early knee-specific functional outcomes following revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using metaphyseal sleeves with a matched cohort of patients undergoing primary TKA. The secondary aim was to compare incidence of complications and length of stay (LOS) between the two groups.


Patients undergoing revision TKA for all diagnoses between 2009 and 2016 had patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) collected prospectively. PROMs consisted of the American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and Short-Form 12 (SF-12). The study cohort was identified retrospectively and demographics were collected. The cohort was matched to a control group of patients undergoing primary TKA.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 4 | Pages 490 - 497
1 Apr 2016
Maempel JF Wickramasinghe NR Clement ND Brenkel IJ Walmsley PJ


The pre-operative level of haemoglobin is the strongest predictor of the peri-operative requirement for blood transfusion after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There are, however, no studies reporting a value that could be considered to be appropriate pre-operatively.

This study aimed to identify threshold pre-operative levels of haemoglobin that would predict the requirement for blood transfusion in patients who undergo TKA.

Patients and Methods

Analysis of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves of 2284 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral TKA was used to determine gender specific thresholds predicting peri-operative transfusion with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (area under ROC curve 0.79 for males; 0.78 for females).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 503 - 509
1 Apr 2015
Maempel JF Clement ND Brenkel IJ Walmsley PJ

This study demonstrates a significant correlation between the American Knee Society (AKS) Clinical Rating System and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and provides a validated prediction tool to estimate score conversion.

A total of 1022 patients were prospectively clinically assessed five years after TKR and completed AKS assessments and an OKS questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations between OKS and the AKS knee and function scores but a stronger correlation (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) when using the sum of the AKS knee and function scores. Addition of body mass index and age (other statistically significant predictors of OKS) to the algorithm did not significantly increase the predictive value.

The simple regression model was used to predict the OKS in a group of 236 patients who were clinically assessed nine to ten years after TKR using the AKS system. The predicted OKS was compared with actual OKS in the second group. Intra-class correlation demonstrated excellent reliability (r = 0.81, 95% confidence intervals 0.75 to 0.85) for the combined knee and function score when used to predict OKS.

Our findings will facilitate comparison of outcome data from studies and registries using either the OKS or the AKS scores and may also be of value for those undertaking meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:503–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1351 - 1355
1 Oct 2012
Collins RA Walmsley PJ Amin AK Brenkel IJ Clayton RAE

A total of 445 consecutive primary total knee replacements (TKRs) were followed up prospectively at six and 18 months and three, six and nine years. Patients were divided into two groups: non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). The obese group was subdivided into mildly obese (BMI 30 to 35 kg/m2) and highly obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) in order to determine the effects of increasing obesity on outcome. The clinical data analysed included the Knee Society score, peri-operative complications and implant survival. There was no difference in the overall complication rates or implant survival between the two groups.

Obesity appears to have a small but significant adverse effect on clinical outcome, with highly obese patients showing lower function scores than non-obese patients. However, significant improvements in outcome are sustained in all groups nine years after TKR. Given the substantial, sustainable relief of symptoms after TKR and the low peri-operative complication and revision rates in these two groups, we have found no reason to limit access to TKR in obese patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 928 - 931
1 Jul 2012
Keenan ACM Wood AM Arthur CA Jenkins PJ Brenkel IJ Walmsley PJ

We report the ten-year survival of a cemented total knee replacement (TKR) in patients aged < 55 years at the time of surgery, and compare the functional outcome with that of patients aged > 55 years. The data were collected prospectively and analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival statistics, with revision for any reason, or death, as the endpoint. A total of 203 patients aged < 55 years were identified. Four had moved out of the area and were excluded, leaving a total of 221 TKRs in 199 patients for analysis (101 men and 98 women, mean age 50.6 years (28 to 55)); 171 patients had osteoarthritis and 28 had inflammatory arthritis. Four patients required revision and four died. The ten-year survival using revision as the endpoint was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 94.6 to 99.4). Based on the Oxford knee scores at five and ten years, the rate of dissatisfaction was 18% and 21%, respectively. This was no worse in the patients aged < 55 years than in patients aged > 55 years.

These results demonstrate that the cemented PFC Sigma knee has an excellent survival rate in patients aged < 55 ten years post-operatively, with clinical outcomes similar to those of an older group. We conclude that TKR should not be withheld from patients on the basis of age.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 2 | Pages 200 - 204
1 Feb 2012
Clement ND Jenkins PJ Brenkel IJ Walmsley P

We report the general mortality rate after total knee replacement and identify independent predictors of survival. We studied 2428 patients: there were 1127 men (46%) and 1301 (54%) women with a mean age of 69.3 years (28 to 94). Patients were allocated a predicted life expectancy based on their age and gender.

There were 223 deaths during the study period. This represented an overall survivorship of 99% (95% confidence interval (CI) 98 to 99) at one year, 90% (95% CI 89 to 92) at five years, and 84% (95% CI 82 to 86) at ten years. There was no difference in survival by gender. A greater mortality rate was associated with increasing age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade (p < 0.001), smoking (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) <  20 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) and rheumatoid arthritis (p < 0.001). Multivariate modelling confirmed the independent effect of age, ASA grade, BMI, and rheumatoid disease on mortality. Based on the predicted average mortality, 114 patients were predicted to have died, whereas 217 actually died. This resulted in an overall excess standardised mortality ratio of 1.90. Patient mortality after TKR is predicted by their demographics: these could be used to assign an individual mortality risk after surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1178 - 1182
1 Sep 2011
Davis AM Wood AM Keenan ACM Brenkel IJ Ballantyne JA

Studies describing the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of total hip replacement have been inconclusive and contradictory. We examined the effect of BMI on medium-term outcome in a cohort of 1617 patients who underwent a primary total hip replacement for osteoarthritis. These patients were followed prospectively for five years with the outcomes of dislocation, revision, duration of surgery and deep and superficial infection studied, as well as collecting Harris hip scores (HHS) and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires pre-operatively and at review. A multivariate analysis was performed to see whether BMI is an independent predictor of poor outcome.

We found that patients with a BMI of ? 35 kg/m2 have a 4.42 times higher rate of dislocation than those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2. Increasing BMI is also associated with superficial infection and poorer HHS and SF-36 scores at five years. These trends remain significant even when multivariate analysis adjusts for age, gender, prosthesis, operating consultant, pre-operative HHS and SF-36, and comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease and osteoporosis.

Despite the increased risks, the five-year outcome scores indicate that obese patients have much to gain from total hip replacement. Thus total hip replacement should not be withheld from patients solely on the grounds of an elevated BMI. However, longer-term follow-up of this cohort is required to establish whether adverse outcomes become more evident with time.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 277 - 284
1 Feb 2011
Amin AK Huntley JS Patton JT Brenkel IJ Simpson AHRW Hall AC

The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure of human articular cartilage to hyperosmotic saline (0.9%, 600 mOsm) reduces in situ chondrocyte death following a standardised mechanical injury produced by a scalpel cut compared with the same assault and exposure to normal saline (0.9%, 285 mOsm). Human cartilage explants were exposed to normal (control) and hyperosmotic 0.9% saline solutions for five minutes before the mechanical injury to allow in situ chondrocytes to respond to the altered osmotic environment, and incubated for a further 2.5 hours in the same solutions following the mechanical injury.

Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we identified a sixfold (p = 0.04) decrease in chondrocyte death following mechanical injury in the superficial zone of human articular cartilage exposed to hyperosmotic saline compared with normal saline.

These data suggest that increasing the osmolarity of joint irrigation solutions used during open and arthroscopic articular surgery may reduce chondrocyte death from surgical injury and could promote integrative cartilage repair.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 96 - 101
1 Jan 2011
Meek RMD Norwood T Smith R Brenkel IJ Howie CR

Peri-prosthetic fracture after joint replacement in the lower limb is associated with significant morbidity. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture after total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) over a ten-year period using a population-based linked dataset.

Between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2008, 52 136 primary THRs, 8726 revision THRs, 44 511 primary TKRs, and 3222 revision TKRs were performed. Five years post-operatively, the rate of fracture was 0.9% after primary THR, 4.2% after revision THR, 0.6% after primary TKR and 1.7% after revision TKR. Comparison of survival analysis for all primary and revision arthroplasties showed peri-prosthetic fractures were more likely in females, patients aged > 70 and after revision arthroplasty.

Female patients aged > 70 should be warned of a significantly increased risk of peri-prosthetic fracture after hip or knee replacement. The use of adjuvant medical treatment to reduce the effect of peri-prosthetic osteoporosis may be a direction of research for these patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1066 - 1071
1 Aug 2010
Chee YH Teoh KH Sabnis BM Ballantyne JA Brenkel IJ

We compared 55 consecutive total hip replacements performed on 53 morbidly obese patients with osteoarthritis with a matched group of 55 total hip replacements in 53 non-obese patients. The groups were matched for age, gender, prosthesis type, laterality and preoperative Harris Hip Score. They were followed prospectively for five years and the outcomes were assessed using the Harris Hip Score, the Short-form 36 score and radiological findings.

Survival at five years using revision surgery as an endpoint, was 90.9% (95% confidence interval 82.9 to 98.9) for the morbidly obese and 100% for the non-obese patients. The Harris Hip and the Short-form 36 scores were significantly better in the non-obese group (p < 0.001). The morbidly obese patients had a higher rate of complications (22% vs 5%, p = 0.012), which included dislocation and both superficial and deep infection.

In light of these inferior results, morbidly obese patients should be advised to lose weight before undergoing a total hip replacement, and counselled regarding the complications. Despite these poorer results, however, the patients have improved function and quality of life.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 4 | Pages 434 - 440
1 Apr 2009
Dall GF Ohly NE Ballantyne JA Brenkel IJ

We analysed which pre-operative factors could be used to predict the length of in-patient stay following unilateral primary total hip replacement undertaken for osteoarthritis. Data were collected prospectively from 2302 patients undergoing primary total hip replacement over a nine-year period. The relationships between the various pre-operative factors and length of stay were studied separately using either Student’s t-test or Pearson’s correlation, and then subjected to multiple linear regression analysis.

The mean length of stay was 8.1 days (median 7; 3 to 58). After adjusting for the effects of other pre-operative factors, younger age, male gender, higher combined Harris hip function and activity score, higher general health perception dimension of the Short-Form 36 score, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use were all found to be significantly associated with a reduced length of stay.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1435 - 1440
1 Nov 2008
Smith IDM Elton R Ballantyne JA Brenkel IJ

In Scotland, the number of primary total knee replacements performed annually has been increasing steadily. The price of the implant is fixed but the length of hospital stay is variable.

We prospectively investigated all patients who underwent primary unilateral total knee replacement in the Scottish region of Fife, between December 1994 and February 2007 and assessed their recorded pre-operative details. The data were analysed using univariate and multiple linear regression statistical analysis.

Data on the length of stay were available from a total of 2106 unilateral total knee replacements. The median length of hospital stay was eight days. The significant pre-operative risk factors for an increased length of stay were the year of admission, details of the consultant looking after the patient, the stair score, the walking-aid score and age.

Awareness of the pre-operative factors which increase the length of hospital stay may provide the opportunity to influence them favourably and to reduce the time in hospital and the associated costs of unilateral total knee replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1042 - 1045
1 Aug 2007
Elson DW Brenkel IJ

Pain is the main indication for performing total knee replacement (TKR). In most patients after TKR there is an improvement, but a few continue to have pain. Generally, the cause of the pain can be addressed when it is identified. However, unexplained pain can be more difficult to manage because revision surgery is likely to be unrewarding in this group. In our study of 622 cemented TKRs in 512 patients with a mean age of 69 years (23 to 90) treated between January 1995 and August 1998, we identified 24 patients (knees) with unexplained pain at six months. This group was followed for five years (data was unavailable for 18 knees) and ten patients (55.5%) went on to show an improvement without intervention.

In the case of unexplained pain, management decisions must be carefully considered, but reassurance can be offered to patients that the pain will improve in more than half with time.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 7 | Pages 868 - 873
1 Jul 2007
Ng CY Ballantyne JA Brenkel IJ

We have evaluated the quality of life and functional outcome after unilateral primary total hip replacement (THR). Between 5 January 1998 and 31 July 2000, we recruited a consecutive series of 627 patients undergoing this procedure and investigated them prospectively. Each was assessed before operation and reviewed after six months, 18 months, three years and five years. The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Harris Hip scores were evaluated at each appointment.

All dimensions of the SF-36 except for mental health and general health perception, improved significantly after operation and this was maintained throughout the follow-up. The greatest improvement was seen at the six-month assessment. On average, women reported lower SF-36 scores pre-operatively, but the gender difference did not continue post-operatively. The Harris Hip scores improved significantly after operation, reaching a plateau after 18 months. The improved quality of life was sustained five years after THR.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1321 - 1326
1 Oct 2006
Amin AK Clayton RAE Patton JT Gaston M Cook RE Brenkel IJ

The results of 41 consecutive total knee replacements performed on morbidly obese patients with a body mass index > 40 kg/m2, were compared with a matched group of 41 similar procedures carried out in non-obese patients (body mass index < 30 kg/m2). The groups were matched for age, gender, diagnosis, type of prosthesis, laterality and pre-operative Knee Society Score. We prospectively followed up the patients for a mean of 38.5 months (6 to 66). No patients were lost to follow-up. At less than four years after operation, the results were worse in the morbidly obese group compared with the non-obese, as demonstrated by inferior Knee Society Scores (mean knee score 85.7 and 90.5 respectively, p = 0.08; mean function score 75.6 and 83.4, p = 0.01), a higher incidence of radiolucent lines on post-operative radiographs (29% and 7%, respectively, p = 0.02), a higher rate of complications (32% and 0%, respectively, p = 0.001) and inferior survivorship using revision and pain as end-points (72.3% and 97.6%, respectively, p = 0.02).

Patients with a body mass index > 40 kg/m2 should be advised to lose weight prior to total knee replacement and to maintain weight reduction. They should also be counselled regarding the inferior results which may occur if they do not lose weight before surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 3 | Pages 335 - 340
1 Mar 2006
Amin AK Patton JT Cook RE Brenkel IJ

A total of 370 consecutive primary total knee replacements performed for osteoarthritis were followed up prospectively at 6, 18, 36 and 60 months. The Knee Society score and complications (perioperative mortality, superficial and deep wound infection, deep-vein thrombosis and revision rate) were recorded. By dividing the study sample into subgroups based on the body mass index overall, the body mass index in female patients and the absolute body-weight. The outcome in obese and non-obese patients was compared. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed no difference in the Knee Society score between the subgroups. There was no statistically-significant difference in the complication rates for the subgroups studied. Obesity did not influence the clinical outcome five years after total knee replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 7 | Pages 934 - 936
1 Jul 2005
Aderinto J Brenkel IJ Chan P

We investigated fixed flexion deformity (FFD) after total knee replacement (TKR). Data relating to 369 cruciate-retaining unilateral TKRs performed at a single institution were collected prospectively. Fixed flexion was measured pre-operatively and at one week, six months, 18 months, three years and five years after surgery.

Using binary logistic regression, pre-operative FFD was a predictor of post-operative FFD > 10° at one week (p = 0.006) and six months (p = 0.003) following surgery. Gender was a predictor at one week (p = 0.0073) with 24% of women showing a FFD > 10° compared with 37% of men.

We have shown that a gradual improvement in knee extension can be expected up to three years after surgery in knees with FFD. By this time residual FFD is mild or absent in the majority of patients, including those who had a severe pre-operative FFD.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 3 | Pages 296 - 300
1 Mar 2005
Watts AC Brenkel IJ

Despite increasing scientific investigation, the best method for preventing post-operative deep-vein thrombosis remains unclear. In the wake of the publication of the Pulmonary Embolism Prevention trial and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) on the prevention of thromboembolism, we felt that it was timely to survey current thromboprophylactic practices. Questionnaires were sent to all consultants on the register of the British Orthopaedic Association. The rate of response was 62%. The survey showed a dramatic change in practice towards the use of chemoprophylaxis since the review by Morris and Mitchell in 1976. We found that there was a greater uniformity of opinion and prescribing practices in Scotland, consistent with the SIGN guidelines, than in the rest of the UK. We argue in favour of the use of such documents which are based on a qualitative review of current scientific literature.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 7 | Pages 970 - 973
1 Sep 2004
Aderinto J Brenkel IJ

We have reviewed prospective data on 1016 patients who underwent unilateral total hip replacement to establish the pre-operative risk factors associated with peri-operative blood transfusion. Most patients who required transfusion were older and were of lower weight, height, pre-operative haemoglobin level and body mass index than patients who were not transfused.

Multivariate analysis revealed that only the pre-operative haemoglobin level and the patients weight were identified as significant independent factors increasing the need for transfusion (p < 0.001). A haemoglobin level below 12 g/dl was associated with a threefold increase in transfusion requirement.