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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1370 - 1377
1 Oct 2014
Connelly CL Bucknall V Jenkins PJ Court-Brown CM McQueen MM Biant LC

Fractures of the tibial shaft are common injuries, but there are no long-term outcome data in the era of increased surgical management. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the clinical and functional outcome of this injury at 12 to 22 years. Secondary aims were to determine the short- and long-term mortality, and if there were any predictors of clinical or functional outcome or mortality. From a prospective trauma database of 1502 tibial shaft fractures in 1474 consecutive adult patients, we identified a cohort of 1431 tibial diaphyseal fractures in 1403 patients, who fitted our inclusion criteria. There were 1024 men, and mean age at injury was 40.6 years. Fractures were classified according to the AO system, and open fractures graded after Gustilo and Anderson. Requirement of fasciotomy, time to fracture union, complications, incidence of knee and ankle pain at long-term follow-up, changes in employment and the patients’ social deprivation status were recorded. Function was assessed at 12 to 22 years post-injury using the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and short form-12 questionnaires. Long-term functional outcome data was available for 568 of the surviving patients, 389 were deceased and 346 were lost to follow-up. Most fractures (90.7%, n = 1363) united without further intervention. Fasciotomies were performed in 11.5% of patients; this did not correlate with poorer functional outcome in the long term. Social deprivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury but had no impact on long-term function. The one-year mortality in those over 75 years of age was 29 (42%). At long-term follow-up, pain and function scores were good. However, 147 (26%) reported ongoing knee pain, 62 (10%) reported ankle pain and 97 (17%) reported both. Such joint pain correlated with poorer functional outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1370–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 6 | Pages 752 - 758
1 Jun 2014
Scott CEH Murray RC MacDonald DJ Biant LC

We explored the outcome of staged bilateral total knee replacement (TKR) for symmetrical degenerative joint disease and deformity in terms of patient expectations, functional outcome and satisfaction. From 2009 to 2011, 70 consecutive patients (41 female) with a mean age of 71.7 years (43 to 89) underwent 140 staged bilateral TKRs at our institution, with a mean time between operations of 7.8 months (2 to 25). Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at six and 12 months post-operatively using the Short Form-12, Oxford knee score (OKS), expectation questionnaire and satisfaction score. The pre-operative OKS was significantly worse before the first TKR (TKR1), but displayed significantly greater improvement than that observed after the second TKR (TKR2). Expectation level increased from TKR1 to TKR2 in 17% and decreased in 20%. Expectations of pain relief and stair-climbing were less before TKR2; in contrast, expectations of sporting and social activities were greater. Decreased expectations of TKR2 were significantly associated with younger age and high expectations before TKR1. Patient satisfaction was high for both TKR1 (93%) and TKR2 (87%) but did not correlate significantly within individuals. We concluded that satisfaction with one TKR does not necessarily translate to satisfaction following the second.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:752–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 366 - 372
1 Mar 2014
Court-Brown CM Clement ND Duckworth AD Aitken S Biant LC McQueen MM

Fractures in patients aged ≥ 65 years constitute an increasing burden on health and social care and are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is little accurate information about the epidemiology of fractures in the elderly. We have analysed prospectively collected data on 4786 in- and out-patients who presented with a fracture over two one-year periods. Analysis shows that there are six patterns of the incidence of fractures in patients aged ≥ 65 years. In males six types of fracture increase in incidence after the age of 65 years and 11 types increase in females aged over 65 years. Five types of fracture decrease in incidence after the age of 65 years. Multiple fractures increase in incidence in both males and females aged ≥ 65 years, as do fractures related to falls.

Analysis of the incidence of fractures, together with life expectancy, shows that the probability of males and females aged ≥ 65 years having a fracture during the rest of their life is 18.5% and 52.0%, respectively. The equivalent figures for males and females aged ≥ 80 years are 13.3% and 34.8%, respectively.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:366–72.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 2, Issue 2 | Pages 36 - 36
1 Apr 2013
Biant LC

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 4 | Pages 436 - 444
1 Apr 2013
Scott CEH Nutton RW Biant LC

The lateral compartment is predominantly affected in approximately 10% of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. The anatomy, kinematics and loading during movement differ considerably between medial and lateral compartments of the knee. This in the main explains the relative protection of the lateral compartment compared with the medial compartment in the development of osteoarthritis. The aetiology of lateral compartment osteoarthritis can be idiopathic, usually affecting the femur, or secondary to trauma commonly affecting the tibia. Surgical management of lateral compartment osteoarthritis can include osteotomy, unicompartmental knee replacement and total knee replacement. This review discusses the biomechanics, pathogenesis and development of lateral compartment osteoarthritis and its management.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:436–44.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 52 - 58
1 Jan 2013
Clement ND Jenkins PJ DM Nie YX Patton JT Breusch SJ Howie CR Biant LC

We assessed the effect of social deprivation upon the Oxford knee score (OKS), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and patient satisfaction after total knee replacement (TKR). An analysis of 966 patients undergoing primary TKR for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) was performed. Social deprivation was assessed using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Those patients that were most deprived underwent surgery at an earlier age (p = 0.018), were more likely to be female (p = 0.046), to endure more comorbidities (p = 0.04) and to suffer worse pain and function according to the OKS (p < 0.001). In addition, deprivation was also associated with poor mental health (p = 0.002), which was assessed using the mental component (MCS) of the SF-12 score. Multivariable analysis was used to identify independent predictors of outcome at one year. Pre-operative OKS, SF-12 MCS, back pain, and four or more comorbidities were independent predictors of improvement in the OKS (all p < 0.001). Pre-operative OKS and improvement in the OKS were independent predictors of dissatisfaction (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although improvement in the OKS and dissatisfaction after TKR were not significantly associated with social deprivation per se, factors more prevalent within the most deprived groups significantly diminished their improvement in OKS and increased their rate of dissatisfaction following TKR.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:52–8.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1009 - 1015
1 Aug 2012
Scott CEH Biant LC

Stems improve the mechanical stability of tibial components in total knee replacement (TKR), but come at a cost of stress shielding along their length. Their advantages include resistance to shear, reduced tibial lift-off and increased stability by reducing micromotion. Longer stems may have disadvantages including stress shielding along the length of the stem with associated reduction in bone density and a theoretical risk of subsidence and loosening, peri-prosthetic fracture and end-of-stem pain. These features make long stems unattractive in the primary TKR setting, but often desirable in revision surgery with bone loss and instability. In the revision scenario, stems are beneficial in order to convey structural stability to the construct and protect the reconstruction of bony defects. Cemented and uncemented long stemmed implants have different roles depending on the nature of the bone loss involved.

This review discusses the biomechanics of the design of tibial components and stems to inform the selection of the component and the technique of implantation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 974 - 981
1 Jul 2012
Scott CEH Bugler KE Clement ND MacDonald D Howie CR Biant LC

Patient expectations and their fulfilment are an important factor in determining patient-reported outcome and satisfaction of hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the expectations of patients undergoing THR and TKR, and to identify differences in expectations, predictors of high expectations and the relationship between the fulfilment of expectations and patient-reported outcome measures. During the study period, patients who underwent 346 THRs and 323 TKRs completed an expectation questionnaire, Oxford score and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) score pre-operatively. At one year post-operatively, the Oxford score, SF-12, patient satisfaction and expectation fulfilment were assessed. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed. Improvements in mobility and daytime pain were the most important expectations in both groups. Expectation level did not differ between THR and TKR. Poor Oxford score, younger age and male gender significantly predicted high pre-operative expectations (p < 0.001). The level of pre-operative expectation was not significantly associated with the fulfilment of expectations or outcome. THR better met the expectations identified as important by patients. TKR failed to meet expectations of kneeling, squatting and stair climbing. High fulfilment of expectation in both THR and TKR was significantly predicted by young age, greater improvements in Oxford score and high pre-operative mental health scores. The fulfilment of expectations was highly correlated with satisfaction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 504 - 509
1 Apr 2012
Bentley G Biant LC Vijayan S Macmull S Skinner JA Carrington RWJ

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and mosaicplasty are methods of treating symptomatic articular cartilage defects in the knee. This study represents the first long-term randomised comparison of the two techniques in 100 patients at a minimum follow-up of ten years. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 31.3 years (16 to 49); the mean duration of symptoms pre-operatively was 7.2 years (9 months to 20 years). The lesions were large with the mean size for the ACI group being 440.9 mm2 (100 to 1050) and the mosaicplasty group being 399.6 mm2 (100 to 2000). Patients had a mean of 1.5 previous operations (0 to 4) to the articular cartilage defect. Patients were assessed using the modified Cincinnati knee score and the Stanmore-Bentley Functional Rating system. The number of patients whose repair had failed at ten years was ten of 58 (17%) in the ACI group and 23 of 42 (55%) in the mosaicplasty group (p < 0.001).

The functional outcome of those patients with a surviving graft was significantly better in patients who underwent ACI compared with mosaicplasty (p = 0.02).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1265 - 1270
1 Sep 2011
Clement ND MacDonald D Howie CR Biant LC

Primary arthroplasty may be denied to very elderly patients based upon the perceived outcome and risks associated with surgery. This prospective study compared the outcome, complications, and mortality of total hip (TKR) and total knee replacement (TKR) in a prospectively selected group of patients aged ≥ 80 years with that of a control group aged between 65 and 74 years. There were 171 and 495 THRs and 185 and 492 TKRs performed in the older and control groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean improvement of Oxford hip and knee scores between the groups at 12 months (0.98, (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.66 to 2.95), p = 0.34 and 1.15 (95% CI −0.65 to 2.94), p = 0.16, respectively). The control group had a significantly (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) greater improvement in the physical well being component of their SF-12 score, but the older group was more satisfied with their THR (p = 0.047). The older group had a longer hospital stay for both THR (5.9 versus 9.0 days, p < 0.0001) and TKR (6.2 versus 8.3 days, p < 0.0001). The rates of post-operative complications and mortality were increased in the older group.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 464 - 469
1 Apr 2011
Clement ND Muzammil A MacDonald D Howie CR Biant LC

This prospective study assessed the effect of social deprivation on the Oxford hip score at one year after total hip replacement. An analysis of 1312 patients undergoing 1359 primary total hip replacements for symptomatic osteoarthritis was performed over a 35-month period. Social deprivation was assessed using the Carstairs index. Those patients who were most deprived underwent surgery at an earlier age (p = 0.04), had more comorbidities (p = 0.02), increased severity of symptoms at presentation (p = 0.001), and were not as satisfied with their outcome (p = 0.03) compared with more affluent patients. There was a significant improvement in Oxford scores at 12 months relative to pre-operative scores for all socioeconomic categories (p < 0.001). Social deprivation was a significant independent predictor of mean improvement in Oxford scores at 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables (p = 0.001). Deprivation was also associated with an increased risk of dislocation (odds ratio 5.3, p < 0.001) and mortality at 90 days (odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.02).

Outcome, risk of dislocation and early mortality after a total hip replacement are affected by the socioeconomic status of the patient

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 115 - 119
1 Jan 2011
Phillips S Biant LC

Orthopaedic surgeons use a variety of instruments to help correct, treat, and heal bone disease. The development of these instruments mirrors the history of orthopaedic surgery. The history of bonesetting, the treatment and replacement of joints, and of those who performed these techniques, appears to originate deep in antiquity. Changing ideas within medicine and surgery over the last 200 years have shaped the discovery and evolution of orthopaedic instruments and of the bonesetters themselves. Advances have led to the use of computers as instruments in the navigational guidance of arthroplasty surgery, the use of robotics, the development of cordless drills and improvements in the design of blades to cut bone. Yet some of the old instruments remain; plaster of Paris bandages, the Thomas Splint, Liston’s bonecutter, Gigli’s saw, bone nibblers and Macewan’s osteotomes are still in use.

This paper presents a historical review of bonesetters and examines how orthopaedic instruments have evolved from antiquity to the 21st century.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1498 - 1500
1 Nov 2010
Biant LC Rangan A Costa ML Muir DCW Weinrauch PCL Clasper JC Dix-Peek SI

The 2010 Fellows undertook a six-week journey through centres of orthopaedic excellence along the East Coast of Canada and the United States. What we learned and gained from the experience and each other is immeasurable, but five areas particularly stand out; education, research, service delivery, financial insights and professional development.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1253 - 1258
1 Sep 2010
Scott CEH Howie CR MacDonald D Biant LC

Up to 20% of patients are not satisfied with the outcome following total knee replacement (TKR). This study investigated the pre- and post-operative predictors of dissatisfaction in a large cohort of patients undergoing TKR. We assessed 1217 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2008 both before operation and six months after, using the Short-form (SF)-12 health questionnaire and the Oxford Knee Score. Detailed information concerning comorbidity was also gathered. Satisfaction was measured at one year when 18.6% (226 of 1217) of patients were unsure or dissatisfied with their replacement and 81.4% (911 of 1217) were satisfied or very satisfied. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of dissatisfaction. Significant (p < 0.001) predictors at one year included the pre-operative SF-12 mental component score, depression and pain in other joints, the six-month SF-12 score and poorer improvement in the pain element of the Oxford Knee Score.

Patient expectations were highly correlated with satisfaction. Satisfaction following TKR is multifactorial. Managing the expectations and mental health of the patients may reduce dissatisfaction. However, the most significant predictor of dissatisfaction is a painful total knee replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 4 | Pages 540 - 544
1 Apr 2010
Dickson JK Biant LC

Restoration of hand function is rarely achieved after a complete closed traction lesion of the supraclavicular brachial plexus. We describe the injury, treatment, rehabilitation and long-term results of two patients who regained good function of the upper limb and useful function in the hand after such an injury. Successful repairs were performed within six days of injury. Tinel’s sign proved accurate in predicting the ruptures and the distribution of pain was accurate in predicting avulsion. The severe pain that began on the day of injury resolved with the onset of muscle function.

Recovery of muscle function preceded recovery of sensation. Recovery of the function of C and Aδ fibres was the slowest of all.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1561 - 1565
1 Dec 2009
Blakey CM Eswaramoorthy VK Hamilton LC Biant LC Field RE

We report the minimum five-year follow-up of 352 primary total hip replacements using the uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated ANCA-Fit femoral component with a modular neck and head. The series comprised 319 patients (212 men, 107 women) with a mean age at operation of 64.4 years (28 to 97). The principal diagnosis was osteoarthritis. A total of 18 patients (21 hips) died before their follow-up at five years, nine patients (11 hips) were lost to follow-up, and four (four hips) declined further follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes have been recorded for 288 patients (316 hips).

Their mean Oxford Hip Score improved significantly from 41 points (16 to 57) pre-operatively to 20 points (12 to 44) at five-year follow-up. Radiological assessment showed good bony stability in 98% of implants. There were two cases of aseptic loosening of the femoral component. There were no clinical or radiological complications related to modularity. In our series we did not see the high rate of intra-operative fracture previously reported for this implant.

This medium-term follow-up study demonstrates that the clinical outcome of the ANCA-Fit femoral component is, to date, comparable with that of other metaphyseal loading femoral components.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1454 - 1458
1 Nov 2009
Eswaramoorthy VK Biant LC Field RE

We report the outcome of total hip replacement in 29 failed metal-on-metal resurfacing hip replacements in which the primary surgery was performed between August 1995 and February 2005. The mean length of follow-up was five years (1.7 to 11.7). Of the 29 hip resurfacings, 19 acetabular components and all the femoral components were revised (28 uncemented stems and one cemented stem). There were no deaths and none of the patients was lost to follow-up. None of the hips underwent any further revision. The results of the revision resurfacing group were compared with those of a control group of age-matched patients. In the latter group there were 236 primary total hip replacements and 523 resurfacings performed during the same period by the same surgeons.

The outcome of the revision resurfacing group was comparable with that of the stemmed primary hip replacement group but was less good than that of the primary hip resurfacing group. Long-term follow-up is advocated to monitor the outcome of these cases.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1487 - 1492
1 Nov 2009
Blakey CM Biant LC Birch R

A series of 26 children was referred to our specialist unit with a ‘pink pulseless hand’ following a supracondylar fracture of the distal humerus after a mean period of three months (4 days to 12 months) except for one referred after almost three years. They were followed up for a mean of 15.5 years (4 to 26). The neurovascular injuries and resulting impairment in function and salvage procedures were recorded. The mean age at presentation was 8.6 years (2 to 12). There were eight girls and 18 boys.

Only four of the 26 patients had undergone immediate surgical exploration before referral and three of these four had a satisfactory outcome. In one child the brachial artery had been explored unsuccessfully at 48 hours. As a result 23 of the 26 children presented with established ischaemic contracture of the forearm and hand. Two responded to conservative stretching. In the remaining 21 the antecubital fossa was explored. The aim of surgery was to try to improve the function of the hand and forearm, to assess nerve, vessel and muscle damage, to relieve entrapment and to minimise future disturbance of growth.

Based on our results we recommend urgent exploration of the vessels and nerves in a child with a ‘pink pulseless hand’, not relieved by reduction of a supracondylar fracture of the distal humerus and presenting with persistent and increasing pain suggestive of a deepening nerve lesion and critical ischaemia.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 776 - 783
1 Jun 2009
Rajesparan K Biant LC Ahmad M Field RE

Tranexamic acid is a fibrinolytic inhibitor which reduces blood loss in total knee replacement. We examined the effect on blood loss of a standardised intravenous bolus dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid, given at the induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing total hip replacement and tested the potential prothrombotic effect by undertaking routine venography. In all, 36 patients received 1 g of tranexamic acid, and 37 no tranexamic acid. Blood loss was measured directly per-operatively and indirectly post-operatively.

Tranexamic acid reduced the early post-operative blood loss and total blood loss (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008, respectively) but not the intraoperative blood loss. The tranexamic acid group required fewer transfusions (p = 0.03) and had no increased incidence of deep-vein thrombosis. The reduction in early post-operative blood loss was more marked in women (p = 0.05), in whom this effect was dose-related (r = −0.793).

Our study showed that the administration of a standardised pre-operative bolus of 1 g of tranexamic acid was cost-effective in reducing the blood loss and transfusion requirements after total hip replacement, especially in women.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 4 | Pages 533 - 535
1 Apr 2009
Hamilton LC Biant LC Temple LN Field RE

Idiopathic calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout) has a variable presentation. Many joints are usually affected; single joint disease is uncommon. We present a case report of primary monoarticular pseudogout affecting the hip. The diagnosis was made on the appearance and analysis of specimens obtained at arthroscopy. Monoarticular pseudogout is rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any presentation of joint pain.