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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 58-B, Issue 1 | Pages 2 - 24
1 Feb 1976
Barnes R Brown J Garden R Nicoll E

This abridged account of a report to the British Medical Research Council describes a long-term investigation of 1,503 subcapital fractures of the femur, almost all of which were treated by reduction and internal fixation. With three exceptions, union occurred in all Garden Stage I and Stage II fractures and in 67% of Stage III and Stage IV fractures, of which only 14-5% were united at six months. In women, late segmental collapse was seen after union had occurred in 16% of Stage I and in 27-6% of Stage III and Stage IV fractures. Delay of up to one week before operation had no significant effect on the incidence of non-union or of late segmental collapse. The incidence of union followed by late segmental collapse was higher in women with normal bone density than in those with osteoporosis. Smith-Petersen nailing was found to be the least effective form of fixation in displaced fractures. The age and physical state of the patient, the accuracy of reduction, and the security of fixation had the greatest influence on union.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 54-B, Issue 2 | Pages 213 - 215
1 May 1972
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 54-B, Issue 1 | Pages 208 - 208
1 Feb 1972
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 52-B, Issue 3 | Pages 405 - 409
1 Aug 1970
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 50-B, Issue 4 | Pages 691 - 698
1 Nov 1968
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 49-B, Issue 4 | Pages 607 - 617
1 Nov 1967
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 48-B, Issue 4 | Pages 729 - 764
1 Nov 1966
Barnes R Catto M

1. Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumour of bone with clinical and morphological features which distinguish it from osteosarcoma.

2. Cartilage tumours present an unbroken spectrum in their clinical behaviour and histological appearances from the entirely benign to the frankly malignant.

3. A few chondrosarcomata, particularly those in children and young adults, run a rapidly fatal course but in general they metastasise late and some kill by local extension of the tumour.

4. "Secondary" chondrosarcomata arising from a pre-existing osteocartilaginous exostosis or enchondroma are mostly low grade tumours.

5. The first appearance of an osteocartilaginous exostosis after skeletal maturity, renewed growth, or pain unassociated with a fracture, should arouse suspicion of malignancy in any cartilage tumour.

6. Cartilage tumours of the trunk and upper end of femur and humerus are especially liable to sarcomatous change.

7. Although most benign cartilage tumours occur in the hand and foot they rarely become malignant with the exception of those in the calcaneus.

8. If biopsy is necessary it should be of the incisional type, a generous amount of material being removed from the edge of the tumour. Calcified, degenerate areas must be avoided.

9. In low grade tumours microscopic fields judged to be malignant by Lichtenstein and Jaffe's well established criteria may be scanty and many paraffin sections should be examined. Absence of mitotic figures, heavy calcification and poor vascularity are no guarantee of benignity.

10. Information as to the site of the tumour and age of the patient must be available to the pathologist if a useful report is to be given.

11 . In "borderline" tumours or where any difficulty in diagnosis arises the clinical, radiographic and histological features must all be taken into account and treatment based on the most unfavourable features.

12. Chondrosarcoma is a radio-resistant tumour and treatment is by radical excision or amputation.

13. Malignant cartilage cells implanted in the tissues at operation will often continue to grow and in all instances the biopsy wound and surrounding tissues must be removed en bloc with the tumour.

14. Small, low grade, readily accessible, peripheral tumours may be successfully treated by excision with a wide margin of healthy tissue.

15. In the limbs or pelvis large tumours and those of high grade malignancy should be treated by amputation. Since marrow permeation is often greater than the radiograph suggests amputation should, as a rule, not be performed through the bone in which the chondrosarcoma is situated.

16. Recurrence carries the danger that an initially accessible tumour becomes inaccessible and inoperable and, less frequently, a low grade tumour recurs in a metastasising form.

17. Recurrence is frequent after inadequate surgery; it indicates that the tumour is at least locally malignant and a cure can usually only then be achieved by more radical surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 48-B, Issue 2 | Pages 207 - 235
1 May 1966
McCallum RI Walder DN Barnes R Catto ME Davidson JK Fryer DI Golding FC Paton WDM

1. A radiographic investigation of a group of 241 men who had worked in compressed air at pressures up to 35 pounds per square inch gauge on the construction of tunnels under the River Clyde showed that forty-seven men (19 per cent) had one or more lesions of aseptic necrosis of bone.

2. The radiological lesions have been classified as juxta-articular, which may lead to pain and limitation of movement, and head, neck and shaft lesions, which are usually symptomless. In 10 per cent of the men the lesions were juxta-articular and therefore potentially disabling. The treatment ofjuxta-articular lesions is described and reviewed.

3. The environmental factors associated with the occurrence of aseptic necrosis of bone, the radiological and histological appearances, and the pathogenesis of the lesions are discussed. Bone lesions were found to be related directly to the number of times a man had been decompressed, to the height of pressure at which he had worked and to attacks of bends for which treatment was given.

4. When the histological and radiographic appearances of aseptic necrosis of bone in compressed air workers are compared it is clear that a radiograph may not always reveal the full extent of the lesion, and some lesions may not show up at all. The cause of the necrosis is obscure because experimental and direct evidence of bone infarction by gas bubbles is lacking.

5. The currently accepted decompression procedures and treatment of bends used in civil engineering practice, do not prevent the occurrence of aseptic necrosis of bone in compressed air workers.

6. It is suggested that periodic radiological examination of the bones of compressed air workers should be carried out and the results correlated with other information about the men and the contracts on which they have worked in order to elucidate the causative factors in aseptic necrosis of bone. A central registry has been set up by the Medical Research Council in the University of Newcastle upon Tyne to fulfil this function.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 44-B, Issue 4 | Pages 760 - 761
1 Nov 1962
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 42-B, Issue 2 | Pages 175 - 176
1 May 1960
Barnes R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 38-B, Issue 1 | Pages 301 - 311
1 Feb 1956
Barnes R

1. The clinical, radiographic and pathological features of aneurysmal bone cyst are described and illustrated by case reports.

2. Reasons are given for accepting the lesion as a clinical and pathological entity.

3. The cyst has a tendency to spontaneous regression and healing may occur after partial excision.