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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 889 - 894
1 Jul 2012
Burston BJ Barnett AJ Amirfeyz R Yates PJ Bannister GC

We prospectively followed 191 consecutive collarless polished tapered (CPT) femoral stems, implanted in 175 patients who had a mean age at operation of 64.5 years (21 to 85). At a mean follow-up of 15.9 years (14 to 17.5), 86 patients (95 hips) were still alive. The fate of all original stems is known. The 16-year survivorship with re-operation for any reason was 80.7% (95% confidence interval 72 to 89.4). There was no loss to follow-up, with clinical data available on all 95 hips and radiological assessment performed on 90 hips (95%). At latest follow-up, the mean Harris hip score was 78 (28 to 100) and the mean Oxford hip score was 36 (15 to 48). Stems subsided within the cement mantle, with a mean subsidence of 2.1 mm (0.4 to 19.2). Among the original cohort, only one stem (0.5%) has been revised due to aseptic loosening. In total seven stems were revised for any cause, of which four revisions were required for infection following revision of the acetabular component. A total of 21 patients (11%) required some sort of revision procedure; all except three of these resulted from failure of the acetabular component. Cemented acetabular components had a significantly lower revision burden (three hips, 2.7%) than Harris Galante uncemented components (17 hips, 21.8%) (p < 0.001).

The CPT stem continues to provide excellent radiological and clinical outcomes at 15 years following implantation. Its results are consistent with other polished tapered stem designs.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1045 - 1048
1 Aug 2011
Avery PP Baker RP Walton MJ Rooker JC Squires B Gargan MF Bannister GC

We reviewed the seven- to ten-year results of our previously reported prospective randomised controlled trial comparing total hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck. Of our original study group of 81 patients, 47 were still alive.

After a mean follow up of nine years (7 to 10) overall mortality was 32.5% and 51.2% after total hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty, respectively (p = 0.09). At 100 months postoperatively a significantly greater proportion of hemiarthroplasty patients had died (p = 0.026). Three hips dislocated following total hip replacement and none after hemiarthroplasty. In both the total hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty groups a deterioration had occurred in walking distance (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). One total hip replacement required revision compared with four hemiarthroplasties which were revised to total hip replacements. All surviving patients with a total hip replacement demonstrated wear of the cemented polyethylene component and all hemiarthroplasties had produced acetabular erosion.

There was lower mortality (p = 0.013) and a trend towards superior function in patients with a total hip replacement in the medium term.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 158 - 163
1 Feb 2011
Baker RP Pollard TCB Eastaugh-Waring SJ Bannister GC

We compared the medium-term clinical and radiological results of hybrid total hip replacement (THR) with metal-on-metal Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) in two groups of 54 young patients matched for age, gender, body mass index and pre-operative levels of activity.

The clinical outcome was assessed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and the EuroQol scores. Radiologically, all hips were assessed for migration and osteolysis, the hybrid THRs for polyethylene wear and the BHRs for a pedestal sign. The mean follow-up of the patients with a hybrid THR was ten years and for those with a BHR, nine years. Four patients with a hybrid THR and one with a BHR had died. In each group five were lost to follow-up. The revision rate of the hybrid THRs was 16.7% (9 of 54) and of the BHRs 9.3% (5 of 54) (p = 0.195). Radiographs of a further eight hybrid THRs demonstrated wear and osteolysis, and they await revision (p = 0.008). Of the unrevised BHRs 90% had radiological changes, of which approximately 50% had progressed over the previous four years. All hybrid THRs demonstrated linear polyethylene wear with a mean of 1.24 mm (0.06 to 3.03). The BHRs recorded superior OHS (p = 0.013), UCLA (p = 0.008), and EuroQol visual analogue scores (p = 0.009).

After nine years, patients with BHRs remained more active and had a lower rate of revision than those with hybrid THRs. Both groups demonstrated progressive radiological changes at medium-term follow-up.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 725 - 729
1 Jun 2009
Livesey C Wylde V Descamps S Estela CM Bannister GC Learmonth ID Blom AW

We undertook a randomised controlled trial to compare the outcomes of skin adhesive and staples for skin closure in total hip replacement. The primary outcome was the cosmetic appearance of the scar at three months using a surgeon-rated visual analogue scale. In all, 90 patients were randomised to skin closure using either skin adhesive (n = 45) or staples (n = 45). Data on demographics, surgical details, infection and oozing were collected during the in-patient stay. Further data on complications, patient satisfaction and evaluation of cosmesis were collected at three-month follow-up, and a photograph of the scar was taken. An orthopaedic and a plastic surgeon independently evaluated the cosmetic appearance of the scars from the photographs. No significant difference was found between groups in the cosmetic appearance of scars at three months (p = 0.172), the occurrence of complications (p = 0.3), or patient satisfaction (p = 0.42). Staples were quicker and easier to use than skin adhesive and also less expensive. Skin adhesive and surgical staples are both effective skin closure methods in total hip replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1422 - 1427
1 Nov 2008
Utting MR Raghuvanshi M Amirfeyz R Blom AW Learmonth ID Bannister GC

We have reviewed 70 Harris-Galante uncemented acetabular components implanted as hybrid hip replacements with cemented stems between 1991 and 1995 in 53 patients whose mean age was 40 years (19 to 49). The mean follow-up was for 13.6 years (12 to 16) with no loss to follow-up. We assessed the patients both clinically and radiologically.

The mean Oxford hip score was 20 (12 to 46) and the mean Harris hip score 81 (37 to 100) at the final review. Radiologically, 27 hips (39%) had femoral osteolysis, 13 (19%) acetabular osteolysis, and 31 (44%) radiolucent lines around the acetabular component. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for the outcomes of revision of the acetabular component, revision of the component and polyethylene liner, and impending revision for progressive osteolysis.

The cumulative survival for revision of the acetabular component was 94% (95% confidence interval 88.4 to 99.7), for the component and liner 84% (95% confidence interval 74.5 to 93.5) and for impending revision 55.3% (95% confidence interval 40.6 to 70) at 16 years.

Uncemented acetabular components with polyethylene liners undergo silent lysis and merit regular long-term radiological review.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 1 | Pages 16 - 22
1 Jan 2008
Yates PJ Burston BJ Whitley E Bannister GC

We retrospectively reviewed 175 patients (191 hips) who had undergone primary cemented total hip replacement between November 1992 and November 1995 using a collarless polished double-tapered femoral component after a minimum of ten years (mean 11.08; 10 to 12.8). All stems were implanted using contemporary cementing techniques with a distal cement restrictor, pressurised lavage, retrograde cementing with a gun and proximal pressurisation. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip score. Radiological analysis was performed on calibrated plain radiographs taken in two planes. Complete radiological data on 110 patients (120 hips) and clinical follow-up on all the surviving 111 patients (122 hips) was available. The fate of all the hips was known.

At final follow-up, the mean Harris Hip score was 86 (47 to 100), and 87 of 116 patients (75%) had good or excellent scores. Survival with revision of the stem for aseptic loosening as the endpoint was 100%; and survival with revision of the stem for any reason was 95.9% (95% confidence interval 87.8 to 96.8) at ten years. All the stems subsided vertically at the stem-cement interface in a predictable pattern, at an overall mean rate of 0.18 mm per year (0.02 to 2.16), but with a mean rate of 0.80 mm (0.02 to 2.5) during the first year. The mean total subsidence was 1.95 mm (0.21 to 24). Only three stems loosened at the cement-bone interface. There was excellent preservation of proximal femoral bone stock. There was a high incidence of Brooker III and IV heterotopic ossification affecting 25 patients (22%).

The collarless polished tapered stem has an excellent clinical and radiological outcome at a minimum of ten years’ follow-up. The pattern and magnitude of subsidence of the stem within the cement mantle occurred in a predictable pattern, consistent with the design philosophy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1299 - 1302
1 Oct 2007
Ramiah RD Ashmore AM Whitley E Bannister GC

We determined the ten-year life expectancy of 5831 patients who had undergone 6653 elective primary total hip replacements at a regional orthopaedic centre between April 1993 and October 2004. Using hospital, general practitioner and the local health authority records, we recorded the dates of death for those who died following surgery.

The mean age at operation was 67 years (13 to 96) with a male:female ratio of 2:3. Of 1154 patients with a ten-year follow-up 340 (29.5%) had died a mean of 5.6 years (0 to 10) after surgery. Using Kaplan-Meier curves, the ten-year survival was 89% in patients under 65 years at surgery, 75% in patients aged between 65 and 74 years, and 51% in patients over 75.

The standardised mortality rates were considerably higher for patients under 45 years, 20% higher for those between 45 and 64 years, and steadily reduced in patients aged 65 and over.

The survival of cemented hip replacement derived from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register Annual Report 2004 exceeds the life expectancy of patients over the age of 60 in our area, suggesting that cemented hip replacement is the procedure of choice in this population.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 1 | Pages 21 - 25
1 Jan 2007
Khan A Yates P Lovering A Bannister GC Spencer RF

We determined the effect of the surgical approach on perfusion of the femoral head during hip resurfacing arthroplasty by measuring the concentration of cefuroxime in bone samples from the femoral head. A total of 20 operations were performed through either a transgluteal or an extended posterolateral approach.

The concentration of cefuroxime in bone was significantly greater when using the transgluteal approach (mean 15.7 mg/kg; 95% confidence interval 12.3 to 19.1) compared with that using the posterolateral approach (mean 5.6 mg/kg; 95% confidence interval 3.5 to 7.8; p < 0.001). In one patient, who had the operation through a posterolateral approach, cefuroxime was undetectable.

Using cefuroxime as an indirect measure of blood flow, the posterolateral approach was found to be associated with a significant reduction in the blood supply to the femoral head during resurfacing arthroplasty compared with the transgluteal approach.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1584 - 1590
1 Dec 2006
Hook S Moulder E Yates PJ Burston BJ Whitley E Bannister GC

We reviewed 142 consecutive primary total hip replacements implanted into 123 patients between 1988 and 1993 using the Exeter Universal femoral stem. A total of 74 patients (88 hips) had survived for ten years or more and were reviewed at a mean of 12.7 years (10 to 17). There was no loss to follow-up.

The rate of revision of the femoral component for aseptic loosening and osteolysis was 1.1% (1 stem), that for revision for any cause was 2.2% (2 stems), and for re-operation for any cause was 21.6% (19 hips). Re-operation was because of failure of the acetabular component in all but two hips.

All but one femoral component subsided within the cement mantle to a mean of 1.52 mm (0 to 8.3) at the final follow-up. One further stem had subsided excessively (8 mm) and had lucent lines at the cement-stem and cement-bone interfaces. This was classified as a radiological failure and is awaiting revision. One stem was revised for deep infection and one for excessive peri-articular osteolysis. Defects of the cement mantle (Barrack grade C and D) were found in 28% of stems (25 hips), associated with increased subsidence (p = 0.01), but were not associated with endosteal lysis or failure.

Peri-articular osteolysis was significantly related to the degree of polyethylene wear (p < 0.001), which was in turn associated with a younger age (p = 0.01) and male gender (p < 0.001).

The use of the Exeter metal-backed acetabular component was a notable failure with 12 of 32 hips (37.5%) revised for loosening. The Harris-Galante components failed with excessive wear, osteolysis and dislocation with 15% revised (5 of 33 hips). Only one of 23 hips with a cemented Elite component (4%) was revised for loosening and osteolysis.

Our findings show that the Exeter Universal stem implanted outside the originating centre has excellent medium-term results.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 5 | Pages 592 - 600
1 May 2006
Pollard TCB Baker RP Eastaugh-Waring SJ Bannister GC

We compared the five- to seven-year clinical and radiological results of the metal-on-metal Birmingham hip resurfacing with a hybrid total hip arthroplasty in two groups of 54 hips, matched for gender, age, body mass index and activity level.

Function was excellent in both groups, as measured by the Oxford hip score, but the Birmingham hip resurfacings had higher University of California at Los Angeles activity scores and better EuroQol quality of life scores. The total hip arthroplasties had a revision or intention-to-revise rate of 8%, and the Birmingham hip resurfacings of 6%. Both groups demonstrated impending failure on surrogate end-points. Of the total hip arthroplasties, 12% had polyethylene wear and osteolysis under observation, and 8% of Birmingham hip resurfacings showed migration of the femoral component. Polyethylene wear was present in 48% of the hybrid hips without osteolysis. Of the femoral components in the Birmingham hip resurfacing group which had not migrated, 66% had radiological changes of unknown significance.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1307 - 1307
1 Sep 2005

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1165 - 1165
1 Aug 2005

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 2 | Pages 155 - 157
1 Feb 2005
Konyves A Bannister GC

We assessed leg length discrepancy and hip function in 90 patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty before surgery and at three and 12 months after. Function was measured using the Oxford hip score (OHS). After surgery the mean OHS improved by 26 points after three months and by 30 points after 12.

After operation 56 (62%) limbs were long by a mean of 9 mm and this was perceived by 24 (43%) patients after three months and by 18 (33%) after 12. The mean OHS in patients who perceived true lengthening was 27% worse than the rest of the population after three months and 18% worse after 12. In 55 (98%) patients, lengthening occurred in the femoral component. Appropriate placement of the femoral component could significantly reduce a patient’s perception of discrepancy of length.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1032 - 1034
1 Sep 2004
Joslin CC Khan SN Bannister GC

Claims for personal injury after whiplash injury cost the economy of the United Kingdom more than £3 billion per year, yet only very few patients have radiologically demonstrable pathology. Those sustaining fractures of the cervical spine have been subjected to greater force and may reasonably be expected to have worse symptoms than those with whiplash injuries.

Using the neck disability index as the outcome measure, we compared pain and functional disability in four groups of patients who had suffered injury to the cervical spine. After a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, patients who had sustained fractures of the cervical spine had significantly lower levels of pain and disability than those who had received whiplash injuries and were pursuing compensation (p < 0.01), but had similar levels to those whiplash sufferers who had settled litigation or had never sought compensation.

Functional recovery after neck injury was unrelated to the physical insult. The increased morbidity in whiplash patients is likely to be psychological and is associated with litigation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 5 | Pages 688 - 691
1 Jul 2004
Blom AW Brown J Taylor AH Pattison G Whitehouse S Bannister GC

The aim of our study was to determine the current incidence and outcome of infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in our unit comparing them with our earlier audit in 1986, which had revealed infection rates of 4.4% after 471 primary TKAs and 15% after 23 revision TKAs at a mean follow-up of 2.8 years. In the interim we introduced stringent antibiotic prophylaxis, and the routine use of occlusive clothing within vertical laminar flow theatres and 0.05% chlorhexidine lavage during arthroplasty surgery.

We followed up 931 primary TKAs and 69 revision TKAs for a mean of 6.5 years (5 to 8). Patients were traced by postal questionnaire, telephone interview or examination of case notes of the deceased.

Nine (1%) of the patients who underwent primary TKA, and four (5.8%) of those who underwent revision TKA developed deep infection. Two of nine patients (22.2%) who developed infection after primary TKA were successfully treated without further surgery. All four of the patients who had infection after revision TKA had a poor outcome with one amputation, one chronic discharging sinus and two arthrodeses.

Patients who underwent an arthrodesis had comparable Oxford knee scores to those who underwent a two-stage revision. Although infection rates have declined with the introduction of prophylactic measures, and more patients are undergoing TKA, the outcome of infected TKA has improved very little.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 7 | Pages 956 - 959
1 Sep 2003
Blom AW Taylor AH Pattison G Whitehouse S Bannister GC

Our aim in this study was to determine the outcome of hip arthroplasty with regard to infection at our unit. Infection after total joint arthroplasty is a devastating complication. The MRC study in 1984 recommended using vertical laminar flow and prophylactic antibiotics to reduce infection rates. These measures are now routinely used. Between 1993 and 1996, 1727 primary total hip arthroplasties and 305 revision hip arthroplasties were performed and 1567 of the primary and 284 of the revision arthroplasties were reviewed between five and eight years after surgery by means of a postal questionnaire, telephone interview or examination of the medical records of those who had died.

Seventeen (1.08%) of the patients who underwent primary and six (2.1%) of those who underwent revision arthroplasty had a post-operative infection. Only 0.45% of patients who underwent primary arthroplasty required revision for infection.

To our knowledge this is the largest multi-surgeon audit of infection after total hip replacement in the UK. The follow-up of between five and eight years is longer than that of most comparable studies. Our study has shown that a large cohort of surgeons of varying seniority can achieve infection rates of 1% and revision rates for infection of less than 0.5%.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 5 | Pages 678 - 679
1 Jul 2002
Crowther MA.A Bannister GC Huma H Rooker GD

We undertook a prospective, randomised study to compare the analgesic effect of injection of steroid and of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) for the treatment of tennis elbow. Group 1 received a single injection of 20 mg of triamcinolone with lignocaine while group 2 received 2000 shock waves in three sessions at weekly intervals. After six weeks there was a significant difference between the groups with the mean pain score for the injection group falling from 66 to 21 compared with a decrease from 61 to 35 in the shock-wave group (p = 0.05). After three months, 84% of patients in group 1 were considered to have had successful treatment compared with 60% in group 2.

In the medium term local injection of steroid is more successful and 100 times less expensive than ESWT in the treatment of tennis elbow.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 5 | Pages 877 - 880
1 Sep 1999
Webb JM Bannister GC

Percutaneous repair of the ruptured tendo Achillis has a low rate of failure and negligible complications with the wound, but the sural nerve may be damaged. We describe a new technique which minimises the risk of injury to this nerve.

The repair is carried out using three midline stab incisions over the posterior aspect of the tendon. A No. 1 nylon suture on a 90 mm cutting needle approximates the tendon with two box stitches. The procedure can be carried out under local anaesthesia.

We reviewed 27 patients who had a percutaneous repair at a median interval of 35 months after the injury. They returned to work at four weeks and to sport at 16. One developed a minor wound infection and another complex regional pain syndrome type II. There were no injuries to the sural nerve or late reruptures. This technique is simple to undertake and has a low rate of complications.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 6 | Pages 899 - 902
1 Nov 1996
Weale AE Newman P Ferguson IT Bannister GC

Nerve injury is a rare complication of total hip replacement which may be related to the exposure used for the operation. The posterior approach is traditionally associated with injury to the sciatic nerve. We have compared the incidence of nerve injury after primary total hip replacement (THR) using either a posterior or a direct lateral approach.

We studied 42 consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement. The surgeons used a posterior (22 patients) or direct lateral (20 patients) approach in accordance with their normal practice. The obturator, femoral, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerves were assessed clinically and electrophysiologically by electromyography (EMG) and measurement of the velocity of nerve conduction before operation and at four weeks after.

All patients were free from symptoms of nerve injury after operation but five lesions were identified in four patients by the electrophysiological studies; the obturator nerve was involved in two, the femoral in one, the common peroneal in one and the posterior tibial in one. All these injuries occurred using the lateral approach.

Clinical assessment alone underestimates the incidence of nerve injury complicating THR. Our study does not confirm the association of nerve injury with the posterior approach which had been described previously.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 6 | Pages 955 - 957
1 Nov 1996
Squires B Gargan MF Bannister GC

Forty patients with a whiplash injury who had been reviewed previously 2 and 10 years after injury were assessed again after a mean of 15.5 years by physical examination, pain and psychometric testing.

Twenty-eight (70%) continued to complain of symptoms referable to the original accident. Neck pain was the commonest, but low-back pain was present in half. Women and older patients had a worse outcome. Radiating pain was more common in those with severe symptoms.

Evidence of psychological disturbance was seen in 52% of patients with symptoms. Between 10 and 15 years after the accident 18% of the patients had improved whereas 28% had deteriorated.