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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 552 - 561
28 Jul 2021
Werthel J Boux de Casson F Burdin V Athwal GS Favard L Chaoui J Walch G


The aim of this study was to describe a quantitative 3D CT method to measure rotator cuff muscle volume, atrophy, and balance in healthy controls and in three pathological shoulder cohorts.


In all, 102 CT scans were included in the analysis: 46 healthy, 21 cuff tear arthropathy (CTA), 18 irreparable rotator cuff tear (IRCT), and 17 primary osteoarthritis (OA). The four rotator cuff muscles were manually segmented and their volume, including intramuscular fat, was calculated. The normalized volume (NV) of each muscle was calculated by dividing muscle volume to the patient’s scapular bone volume. Muscle volume and percentage of muscle atrophy were compared between muscles and between cohorts.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1074 - 1079
1 Aug 2018
Paul R Knowles N Chaoui J Gauci M Ferreira L Walch G Athwal GS


The Walch Type C dysplastic glenoid is characterized by excessive retroversion. This anatomical study describes its morphology.

Patients and Methods

A total of 29 shoulders with a dysplastic glenoid were analyzed. CT was used to measure retroversion, inclination, height, width, radius-of-curvature, surface area, depth, subluxation of the humeral head and the Goutallier classification of fatty infiltration. The severity of dysplasia and deficiency of the posterior rim of the glenoid were recorded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 2 | Pages 224 - 228
1 Feb 2014
Simone JP Streubel PH Athwal GS Sperling JW Schleck CD Cofield RH

We assessed the clinical results, radiographic outcomes and complications of patients undergoing total shoulder replacement (TSR) for osteoarthritis with concurrent repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1996 and 2010, 45 of 932 patients (4.8%) undergoing TSR for osteoarthritis underwent rotator cuff repair. The final study group comprised 33 patients with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (3 months to 13 years). Tears were classified into small (10), medium (14), large (9) or massive (0). On a scale of 1 to 5, pain decreased from a mean of 4.7 to 1.7 (p = < 0.0001), the mean forward elevation improved from 99° to 139° (p = < 0.0001), and the mean external rotation improved from 20° (0° to 75°) to 49° (20° to 80°) (p = < 0.0001). The improvement in elevation was greater in those with a small tear (p = 0.03). Radiographic evidence of instability developed in six patients with medium or large tears, indicating lack of rotator cuff healing. In all, six glenoid components, including one with instability, were radiologically at risk of loosening. Complications were noted in five patients, all with medium or large tears; four of these had symptomatic instability and one sustained a late peri-prosthetic fracture. Four patients (12%) required further surgery, three with instability and one with a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture.

Consideration should be given to performing rotator cuff repair for stable shoulders during anatomical TSR, but reverse replacement should be considered for older, less active patients with larger tears.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:224–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1383 - 1387
1 Oct 2013
Lanting BA Ferreira LM Johnson JA Athwal GS King GJW

We measured the tension in the interosseous membrane in six cadaveric forearms using an in vitro forearm testing system with the native radial head, after excision of the radial head and after metallic radial head replacement. The tension almost doubled after excision of the radial head during simulated rotation of the forearm (p = 0.007). There was no significant difference in tension in the interosseous membrane between the native and radial head replacement states (p = 0.09). Maximal tension occurred in neutral rotation with both the native and the replaced radial head, but in pronation if the radial head was excised. Under an increasing axial load and with the forearm in a fixed position, the rate of increase in tension in the interosseous membrane was greater when the radial head was excised than for the native radial head or replacement states (p = 0.02). As there was no difference in tension between the native and radial head replacement states, a radial head replacement should provide a normal healing environment for the interosseous membrane after injury or following its reconstruction. Load sharing between the radius and ulna becomes normal after radial head Replacement. As excision of the radial head significantly increased the tension in the interosseous membrane it may potentially lead to its attritional failure over time.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1383–7.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1348 - 1351
1 Oct 2008
Rispoli DM Athwal GS Morrey BF

Ulnar neuropathy presents as a complication in 5% to 10% of total elbow replacements, but subsequent ulnar neurolysis is rarely performed. Little information is available on the surgical management of persistent ulnar neuropathy after elbow replacement. We describe our experience with the surgical management of this problem.

Of 1607 total elbow replacements performed at our institution between January 1969 and December 2004, eight patients (0.5%) had a further operation for persistent or progressive ulnar neuropathy. At a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (3.1 to 21.7) six were clinically improved and satisfied with their outcome, although, only four had complete recovery. When transposition was performed on a previously untransposed nerve the rate of recovery was 75%, but this was reduced to 25% if the nerve had been transposed at the time of the replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1184 - 1187
1 Sep 2007
Rispoli DM Sperling JW Athwal GS Schleck CD Cofield RH

We have examined the relief from pain and the functional outcome in 18 patients who underwent resection arthroplasty of the shoulder as a salvage operation between 1988 and 2002. The indications included failed shoulder replacement in 17, with infection in 13, and chronic septic arthritis in one. The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (2.5 to 16.6). Two intra-operative fractures of the humerus occurred, both of which healed.

The level of pain was significantly decreased (t-test, p < 0.001) but five patients continued to have moderate to severe pain. The mean active elevation was 70° (0° to 150°) postoperatively and represented an improvement from 39° (0° to 140°) (t-test, p = 0.003), but internal and external rotation were hardly changed. The mean number of positive answers on the 12-question Simple Shoulder Test was 3.1 (0 to 12) but the shoulder was generally comfortable when the arm was positioned at rest by the side. The mean post-operative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon’s score was 36 (8 to 73).

Despite applying this procedure principally to failed shoulder replacements, the results were similar to those reported in the literature for patients after severe fracture-dislocation. Reduction of pain is possible in one half to two-thirds of patients. The outcome of this operation in providing relief from pain cannot be guaranteed, but the shoulder is usually comfortable at rest, albeit with profound functional limitations.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1369 - 1374
1 Oct 2005
Athwal GS Chin PY Adams RA Morrey BF

We reviewed 20 patients who had undergone a Coonrad-Morrey total elbow arthroplasty after resection of a primary or metastatic tumour from the elbow or distal humerus between 1980 and 2002. Eighteen patients underwent reconstruction for palliative treatment with restoration of function after intralesional surgery and two after excision of a primary bone tumour. The mean follow-up was 30 months (1 to 192).

Five patients (25%) were alive at the final follow-up; 14 (70%) had died of their disease and one of unrelated causes. Local control was achieved in 15 patients (75%). The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 22 (5 to 45) to 75 points (55 to 95). Four reconstructions (20%) failed and required revision. Seven patients (35%) had early complications, the most frequent being nerve injury (25%). There were no infections or wound complications although 18 patients (90%) had radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both.

The Coonrad-Morrey total elbow arthroplasty provides good relief from pain and a good functional outcome after resection of tumours of the elbow. The rates of complications involving local recurrence of tumour (25%) and nerve injury (25%) are of concern.