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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 9 | Pages 585 - 593
24 Sep 2020
Caterson J Williams MA McCarthy C Athanasou N Temple HT Cosker T Gibbons M


The aticularis genu (AG) is the least substantial and deepest muscle of the anterior compartment of the thigh and of uncertain significance. The aim of the study was to describe the anatomy of AG in cadaveric specimens, to characterize the relevance of AG in pathological distal femur specimens, and to correlate the anatomy and pathology with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of AG.


In 24 cadaveric specimens, AG was identified, photographed, measured, and dissected including neurovascular supply. In all, 35 resected distal femur specimens were examined. AG was photographed and measured and its utility as a surgical margin examined. Preoperative MRIs of these cases were retrospectively analyzed and assessed and its utility assessed as an anterior soft tissue margin in surgery. In all cadaveric specimens, AG was identified as a substantial structure, deep and separate to vastus itermedius (VI) and separated by a clear fascial plane with a discrete neurovascular supply. Mean length of AG was 16.1 cm ( ± 1.6 cm) origin anterior aspect distal third femur and insertion into suprapatellar bursa. In 32 of 35 pathological specimens, AG was identified (mean length 12.8 cm ( ± 0.6 cm)). Where AG was used as anterior cover in pathological specimens all surgical margins were clear of disease. Of these cases, preoperative MRI identified AG in 34 of 35 cases (mean length 8.8 cm ( ± 0.4 cm)).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1518 - 1523
1 Nov 2018
Dean BJF Branford-White H Giele H Critchley P Cogswell L Athanasou N Gibbons CLM


The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical management and outcome of patients with an acral soft-tissue sarcoma of the hand or foot.

Patients and Methods

We identified 63 patients with an acral soft-tissue sarcoma who presented to our tertiary referral sarcoma service between 2000 and 2016. There were 35 men and 28 women with a mean age of 49 years (sd 21). Of the 63 sarcomas, 27 were in the hands and 36 in the feet. The commonest subtypes were epithelioid sarcoma in the hand (n = 8) and synovial sarcoma in the foot (n = 11).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1676 - 1678
1 Dec 2011
Sadideen H Athanasou N Ashmore A McNab I

We report the case of an 82-year-old man who underwent fasciectomy for a severe Dupuytren’s contracture, during which an ossified lesion was encountered within the contracture and surrounding the neurovascular bundle. The abnormal tissue was removed with difficulty and heterotopic ossification was confirmed histologically. We believe this is the first report of heterotopic ossification in Dupuytren’s disease.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 7 | Pages 847 - 851
1 Jul 2008
Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gibbons CLM Ostlere S Athanasou N Gill HS Murray DW

We report 17 patients (20 hips) in whom metal-on-metal resurfacing had been performed and who presented with various symptoms and a soft-tissue mass which we termed a pseudotumour. Each patient underwent plain radiography and in some, CT, MRI and ultrasonography were also performed. In addition, histological examination of available samples was undertaken.

All the patients were women and their presentation was variable. The most common symptom was discomfort in the region of the hip. Other symptoms included spontaneous dislocation, nerve palsy, a noticeable mass or a rash. The common histological features were extensive necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration. To date, 13 of the 20 hips have required revision to a conventional hip replacement. Two are awaiting revision.

We estimate that approximately 1% of patients who have a metal-on-metal resurfacing develop a pseudotumour within five years. The cause is unknown and is probably multifactorial. There may be a toxic reaction to an excess of particulate metal wear debris or a hypersensitivity reaction to a normal amount of metal debris. We are concerned that with time the incidence of these pseudotumours may increase. Further investigation is required to define their cause.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 5 | Pages 820 - 829
1 Sep 1995
Carr A Smith R Athanasou N Woods C

The clinical features, investigation, treatment and outcome of two adults with fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium are described. In this rare acquired disorder of bone, normal lamellar collagen is replaced by structurally unsound collagen-deficient tissue, which leads to extreme bone fragility and ununited fractures. Transmission microscopy and SEM showed striking ultrastructural changes in bone structure and mineralisation. Both patients had monoclonal IgG paraproteins in the plasma and one excreted monoclonal lambda light chains in the urine. No abnormal plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and there was no evidence of amyloid deposition in the tissues. In both patients initial treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol appeared to be ineffective, but in one, repeated courses of melphalan and corticosteroids over three years together with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol produced striking clinical and histological improvement. The findings in these and other patients strongly suggest that paraproteinaemia is an integral feature of fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium, and this needs further investigation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 1 | Pages 28 - 33
1 Jan 1995
Athanasou N Pandey R de Steiger R Crook D Smith P

We assessed the efficacy of intraoperative frozen-section histology in detecting infection in failed arthroplasties in 106 hips and knees. We found inflammatory changes consistent with infection (an average of one or more neutrophil polymorphs or plasma cells per high-power field in several samples) in 18 cases; there was a significant growth on bacterial culture in 20 cases. Compared with the bacterial cultures, the frozen sections provided two false-negative results and three false-positive results (sensitivity, 90%; specificity, 96%; and accuracy, 95%). The positive predictive value was 88%, the negative value, 98%. These results support the inclusion of intra-operative frozen-section histology in any protocol for revision arthroplasty for loose components.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 5 | Pages 652 - 658
1 Sep 1992
Quinn J Joyner C Triffitt J Athanasou N

Macrophages and their fused products are commonly found at the polymethylmethacrylate cement-bone interface, but it is not known if they contribute directly to the osteolysis associated with loosening of the cemented prosthesis. We isolated mononuclear phagocytes from granulomas formed by subcutaneous implantation of polymethylmethacrylate into mice and incubated them on bone slices in which they formed resorption lacunae after co-culture for seven to 14 days with both marrow stromal cells and osteoblast-like cells (in the presence of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone). Increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive mononuclear and multinucleated cells formed in these cultures. Both in the presence and absence of stromal cells, macrophages produced extensive superficial roughening of the bone surface. Polymethylmethacrylate-induced macrophages are thus capable of low-grade surface and high-grade lacunar osteolysis, the latter requiring the presence of specific hormonal and stromal cell elements. These two forms of bone resorption could account for the pathogenesis and clinical patterns associated with loosening of the cemented prosthesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 1 | Pages 57 - 62
1 Jan 1992
Athanasou N Quinn J Bulstrode C

The role of inflammatory cells in aseptic loosening and failure of cemented joint replacements is unclear. Inflammatory cells from the revision joint capsule of four failed hip arthroplasties were examined to determine their nature and resorptive capacity. The capsules contained numerous macrophages and abundant foreign-body macrophage polykaryons, distinguished from osteoclasts by their antigenic phenotype and lack of response to calcitonin. When cultured on cortical bone slices in vitro, both macrophages and macrophage polykaryons produced small resorption pits and were associated with areas of superficial resorption of the bone surface. These results indicate that foreign-body induced macrophages and macrophage polykaryons are capable of a type of low-grade bone resorption which may be of pathogenic significance in the loosening of cemented joint prosthetic components.