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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 602 - 609
1 Jun 2023
Mistry D Ahmed U Aujla R Aslam N D’Alessandro P Malik S


In the UK, the agricultural, military, and construction sectors have stringent rules about the use of hearing protection due to the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Orthopaedic staff may also be at risk due to the use of power tools. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have clear standards as to what are deemed acceptable occupational levels of noise on A-weighted and C-weighted scales. The aims of this review were to assess the current evidence on the testing of exposure to noise in orthopaedic operating theatres to see if it exceeds these regulations.


A search of PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The review was registered prospectively in PROSPERO. Studies which assessed the exposure to noise for orthopaedic staff in operating theatres were included. Data about the exposure to noise were extracted from these studies and compared with the A-weighted and C-weighted acceptable levels described in the HSE regulations.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 124 - 134
1 Feb 2023
Jain S Farook MZ Aslam-Pervez N Amer M Martin DH Unnithan A Middleton R Dunlop DG Scott CEH West R Pandit H


The aim of this study was to compare open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with revision surgery for the surgical management of Unified Classification System (UCS) type B periprosthetic femoral fractures around cemented polished taper-slip femoral components following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).


Data were collected for patients admitted to five UK centres. The primary outcome measure was the two-year reoperation rate. Secondary outcomes were time to surgery, transfusion requirements, critical care requirements, length of stay, two-year local complication rates, six-month systemic complication rates, and mortality rates. Comparisons were made by the form of treatment (ORIF vs revision) and UCS type (B1 vs B2/B3). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed with two-year reoperation for any reason as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 371 - 377
1 Mar 2013
Kugan R Aslam N Bose D McNally MA

Achieving arthrodesis of the ankle can be difficult in the presence of infection, deformity, poor soft tissues and bone loss. We present a series of 48 patients with complex ankle pathology, treated with the Ilizarov technique. Infection was present in 30 patients and 30 had significant deformity before surgery. Outcome was assessed clinically and with patient-reported outcome measures (Modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (MAOFAS) scale and the Short-Form (SF-36)).

Arthrodesis was achieved in 40 patients with the Ilizarov technique alone and in six further patients with additional surgery. Infection was eradicated in all patients at a mean follow-up of 46.6 months (13 to 162). Successful arthrodesis was less likely in those with comorbidities and in tibiocalcaneal fusion compared with tibiotalar fusion.

These patients had poor general health scores compared with the normal population before surgery. The mean MAOFAS score improved significantly from 24.3 (0 to 90) pre-operatively to 56.2 (30 to 90) post-operatively, but there was only a modest improvement in general health; the mean SF-36 improved from 44.8 (19 to 66) to 50.1 (21 to 76). There was a major benefit in terms of pain relief.

Arthrodesis using the Ilizarov technique is an effective treatment for complex ankle pathology, with good clinical outcomes and eradication of infection. However, even after successful arthrodesis general health scores remain limited.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:371–7.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1143 - 1149
1 Aug 2005
Akmal M Singh A Anand A Kesani A Aslam N Goodship A Bentley G

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyaluronic acid supplementation on chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. The clinical benefits of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections are thought to occur through improved joint lubrication. Recent findings have shown that exogenous hyaluronic acid is incorporated into articular cartilage where it may have a direct biological effect on chondrocytes through CD44 receptors.

Bovine articular chondrocytes were isolated and seeded into alginate constructs. These were cultured in medium containing hyaluronic acid at varying concentrations. Samples were assayed for biochemical and histological changes.

There was a dose-dependent response to the exposure of hyaluronic acid to bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Low concentrations of hyaluronic acid (0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL) significantly increase DNA, sulphated glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline synthesis. Immunohistology confirmed the maintenance of cell phenotype with increased matrix deposition of chondroitin-6-sulphate and collagen type II. These findings confirm a stimulatory effect of hyaluronic acid on chondrocyte metabolism.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 6 | Pages 863 - 866
1 Jun 2005
Nagarajah K Aslam N McLardy Smith P McNally M

We describe a technique of ‘cross-hip distraction’ to reduce a dislocated hip with subsequent reconstruction of the joint for septic arthritis with extensive femoral osteomyelitis. A 27-year-old woman presented with a dislocated, collapsed femoral head and chronic osteomyelitis of the femur. Examination revealed a leg-length discrepancy of 7 cm and an irritable hip. A staged technique was used with primary clearance of osteomyelitis and secondary reconstruction of the hip. A cross-hip monolateral external fixator was used to establish normal anatomy followed by an arthroplasty. A good functional outcome was achieved. The use of cross-hip distraction avoids soft-tissue and nerve damage and achieved improved abductor function before arthroplasty.