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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 6 | Pages 687 - 695
1 Jun 2022
Sabah SA Knight R Alvand A Beard DJ Price AJ


Routinely collected patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been useful to quantify and quality-assess provision of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the UK for the past decade. This study aimed to explore whether the outcome following primary THA and TKA had improved over the past seven years.


Secondary data analysis of 277,430 primary THAs and 308,007 primary TKAs from the NHS PROMs programme was undertaken. Outcome measures were: postoperative Oxford Hip/Knee Score (OHS/OKS); proportion of patients achieving a clinically important improvement in joint function (responders); quality of life; patient satisfaction; perceived success; and complication rates. Outcome measures were compared based on year of surgery using multiple linear and logistic regression models.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1578 - 1585
1 Oct 2021
Abram SGF Sabah SA Alvand A Price AJ


To compare rates of serious adverse events in patients undergoing revision knee arthroplasty with consideration of the indication for revision (urgent versus elective indications), and compare these with primary arthroplasty and re-revision arthroplasty.


Patients undergoing primary knee arthroplasty were identified in the national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) between 1 April 1997 to 31 March 2017. Subsequent revision and re-revision arthroplasty procedures in the same patients and same knee were identified. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality and a logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with 90-day mortality and secondary adverse outcomes, including infection (undergoing surgery), pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Urgent indications for revision arthroplasty were defined as infection or fracture, and all other indications (e.g. loosening, instability, wear) were included in the elective indications cohort.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 4 | Pages 627 - 634
1 Apr 2021
Sabah SA Alvand A Beard DJ Price AJ


To estimate the measurement properties for the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) in patients undergoing revision knee arthroplasty (responsiveness, minimal detectable change (MDC-90), minimal important change (MIC), minimal important difference (MID), internal consistency, construct validity, and interpretability).


Secondary data analysis was performed for 10,727 patients undergoing revision knee arthroplasty between 2013 to 2019 using a UK national patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) dataset. Outcome data were collected before revision and at six months postoperatively, using the OKS and EuroQol five-dimension score (EQ-5D). Measurement properties were assessed according to COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1670 - 1674
5 Dec 2020
Khan T Middleton R Alvand A Manktelow ARJ Scammell BE Ollivere BJ


To determine mortality risk after first revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) for periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF), and to compare this to mortality risk after primary and first revision THA for other common indications.


The study cohort consisted of THAs recorded in the National Joint Registry between 2003 and 2015, linked to national mortality data. First revision THAs for PFF, infection, dislocation, and aseptic loosening were identified. We used a flexible parametric model to estimate the cumulative incidence function of death at 90 days, one year, and five years following first revision THA and primary THA, in the presence of further revision as a competing risk. Analysis covariates were age, sex, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 8 | Pages 474 - 480
10 Aug 2020
Price A Shearman AD Hamilton TW Alvand A Kendrick B


The aim of this study is to report the 30 day COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality of patients assessed as SARS-CoV-2 negative who underwent emergency or urgent orthopaedic surgery in the NHS during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic.


A retrospective, single centre, observational cohort study of all patients undergoing surgery between 17 March 2020 and 3May 2020 was performed. Outcomes were stratified by British Orthopaedic Association COVID-19 Patient Risk Assessment Tool. Patients who were SARS-CoV-2 positive at the time of surgery were excluded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 2 | Pages 239 - 245
1 Feb 2020
Nogaro M Abram SGF Alvand A Bottomley N Jackson WFM Price A


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery in children and the adolescent population has increased steadily over recent years. We used a national database to look at trends in ACL reconstruction and rates of serious complications, growth disturbance, and revision surgery, over 20 years.


All hospital episodes for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, under the age of 20 years, between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2017, were extracted by procedure code from the national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Population standardized rates of intervention were determined by age group and year of treatment. Subsequent rates of serious complications including reoperation for infection, growth disturbance (osteotomy, epiphysiodesis), revision reconstruction, and/or contralateral ACL reconstruction rates were determined.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 8, Issue 4 | Pages 5 - 13
1 Aug 2019
Middleton R Khan T Alvand A

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1572 - 1578
1 Dec 2018
Middleton R Wilson HA Alvand A Abram SGF Bottomley N Jackson W Price A


Our unit was identified as a negative outlier in the national patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) programme, which has significant funding implications. As a centre that carries out a high volume of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), our objectives were: 1) to determine whether the PROMs programme included primary UKA when calculating the gain in Oxford Knee Score (OKS); and 2) to determine the impact of excluding primary UKA on calculated OKS gains for primary knee arthroplasty.

Materials and Methods

National PROMs data from England (2012 to 2016) were analyzed. Inclusion of UKA cases in the national PROMs programme was determined using clinical codes. Local OKS gain was calculated for UKA and TKA and compared with the published PROMs results for 2012/13.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1463 - 1470
1 Nov 2016
Grammatopoulos G Alvand A Martin H Whitwell D Taylor A Gibbons CLMH


A possible solution for the management of proximal femoral bone loss is a modular femoral endoprosthesis (EPR). Although the outcome of EPRs in tumour surgery has been well described, the outcome of their use in revision hip surgery has received less attention. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of using EPR for non-neoplastic indications.


A retrospective review of 79 patients who underwent 80 EPRs for non-neoplastic indications was performed, including the rates of complication and survival and the mean Oxford Hip Scores (OHS), at a mean of five years post-operatively. The mean age at the time of surgery was 69 years (28 to 93) and the mean number of previous operations on the hip was 2.4 (0 to 17). The most common indications for EPR implantation were periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) (n = 40), periprosthetic fracture (n = 12) and failed osteosynthesis of a proximal femoral fracture or complex trauma (n = 11).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10_Supple_B | Pages 22 - 27
1 Oct 2016
Bottomley N Jones LD Rout R Alvand A Rombach I Evans T Jackson WFM Beard DJ Price AJ


The aim of this to study was to compare the previously unreported long-term survival outcome of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) performed by trainee surgeons and consultants.

Patients and Methods

We therefore identified a previously unreported cohort of 1084 knees in 947 patients who had a UKA inserted for anteromedial knee arthritis by consultants and surgeons in training, at a tertiary arthroplasty centre and performed survival analysis on the group with revision as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1309 - 1315
1 Oct 2015
Price AJ Erturan G Akhtar K Judge A Alvand A Rees JL

Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants.

There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05).

ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant.

We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1309–15.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1586 - 1591
1 Dec 2011
Alvand A Auplish S Khan T Gill HS Rees JL

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of training on the arthroscopic performance of a group of medical students and to determine whether all students could be trained to competence. Thirty-three medical students with no previous experience of arthroscopy were randomised to a ‘Trained’ or an ‘Untrained’ cohort. They were required to carry out 30 episodes of two simulated arthroscopic tasks (one shoulder and one knee). The primary outcome variable was task success at each episode. Individuals achieved competence when their learning curve stabilised. The secondary outcome was technical dexterity, assessed objectively using a validated motion analysis system. Six subjects in the ‘Untrained’ cohort failed to achieve competence in the shoulder task, compared with one in the ‘Trained’ cohort. During the knee task, two subjects in each cohort failed to achieve competence. Based on the objective motion analysis parameters, the ‘Trained’ cohort performed better on the shoulder task (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference for the knee task (p > 0.05).

Although specific training improved the arthroscopic performance of novices, there were individuals who could not achieve competence despite focused training.These findings may have an impact on the selection process for trainees and influence individual career choices.