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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 235 - 239
1 Feb 2015
Prime M Al-Obaidi B Safarfashandi Z Lok Y Mobasheri R Akmal M

This study examined spinal fractures in patients admitted to a Major Trauma Centre via two independent pathways, a major trauma (MT) pathway and a standard unscheduled non-major trauma (NMT) pathway. A total of 134 patients were admitted with a spinal fracture over a period of two years; 50% of patients were MT and the remainder NMT. MT patients were predominantly male, had a mean age of 48.8 years (13 to 95), commonly underwent surgery (62.7%), characteristically had fractures in the cervico-thoracic and thoracic regions and 50% had fractures of more than one vertebrae, which were radiologically unstable in 70%. By contrast, NMT patients showed an equal gender distribution, were older (mean 58.1 years; 12 to 94), required fewer operations (56.7%), characteristically had fractures in the lumbar region and had fewer multiple and unstable fractures. This level of complexity was reflected in the length of stay in hospital; MT patients receiving surgery were in hospital for a mean of three to four days longer than NMT patients. These results show that MT patients differ from their NMT counterparts and have an increasing complexity of spinal injury.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:235–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 4 | Pages 544 - 553
1 Apr 2006
Akmal M Anand A Anand B Wiseman M Goodship AE Bentley G

Bovine and human articular chondrocytes were seeded in 2% alginate constructs and cultured for up to 19 days in a rotating-wall-vessel (RWV) and under static conditions. Culture within the RWV enhanced DNA levels for bovine chondrocyte-seeded constructs when compared with static conditions but did not produce enhancement for human cells. There was a significant enhancement of glycosaminoglycans and hydroxyproline synthesis for both bovine and human chondrocytes. In all cases, histological analysis revealed enhanced Safranin-O staining in the peripheral regions of the constructs compared with the central region. There was an overall increase in staining intensity after culture within the RWV compared with static conditions. Type-II collagen was produced by both bovine and human chondrocytes in the peripheral and central regions of the constructs and the staining intensity was enhanced by culture within the RWV. A capsule of flattened cells containing type-I collagen developed around the constructs maintained under static conditions when seeded with either bovine or human chondrocytes, but not when cultured within the RWV bioreactor.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1143 - 1149
1 Aug 2005
Akmal M Singh A Anand A Kesani A Aslam N Goodship A Bentley G

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyaluronic acid supplementation on chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. The clinical benefits of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections are thought to occur through improved joint lubrication. Recent findings have shown that exogenous hyaluronic acid is incorporated into articular cartilage where it may have a direct biological effect on chondrocytes through CD44 receptors.

Bovine articular chondrocytes were isolated and seeded into alginate constructs. These were cultured in medium containing hyaluronic acid at varying concentrations. Samples were assayed for biochemical and histological changes.

There was a dose-dependent response to the exposure of hyaluronic acid to bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Low concentrations of hyaluronic acid (0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL) significantly increase DNA, sulphated glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline synthesis. Immunohistology confirmed the maintenance of cell phenotype with increased matrix deposition of chondroitin-6-sulphate and collagen type II. These findings confirm a stimulatory effect of hyaluronic acid on chondrocyte metabolism.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 2 | Pages 223 - 230
1 Mar 2003
Bentley G Biant LC Carrington RWJ Akmal M Goldberg A Williams AM Skinner JA Pringle J

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and mosaicplasty are both claimed to be successful for the repair of defects of the articular cartilage of the knee but there has been no comparative study of the two methods. A total of 100 patients with a mean age of 31.3 years (16 to 49) and with a symptomatic lesion of the articular cartilage in the knee which was suitable for cartilage repair was randomised to undergo either ACI or mosaicplasty; 58 patients had ACI and 42 mosaicplasty. Most lesions were post-traumatic and the mean size of the defect was 4.66 cm2. The mean duration of symptoms was 7.2 years and the mean number of previous operations, excluding arthroscopy, was 1.5. The mean follow-up was 19 months (12 to 26).

Functional assessment using the modified Cincinatti and Stanmore scores and objective clinical assessment showed that 88% had excellent or good results after ACI compared with 69% after mosaicplasty. Arthroscopy at one year demonstrated excellent or good repairs in 82% after ACI and in 34% after mosaicplasty. All five patellar mosaicplasties failed.

Our prospective, randomised, clinical trial has shown significant superiority of ACI over mosaicplasty for the repair of articular defects in the knee. The results for ACI are comparable with those in other studies, but those for mosaicplasty suggest that its continued use is of dubious value.