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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 873 - 880
17 Nov 2023
Swaby L Perry DC Walker K Hind D Mills A Jayasuriya R Totton N Desoysa L Chatters R Young B Sherratt F Latimer N Keetharuth A Kenison L Walters S Gardner A Ahuja S Campbell L Greenwood S Cole A


Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine with associated rotation, often causing distress due to appearance. For some curves, there is good evidence to support the use of a spinal brace, worn for 20 to 24 hours a day to minimize the curve, making it as straight as possible during growth, preventing progression. Compliance can be poor due to appearance and comfort. A night-time brace, worn for eight to 12 hours, can achieve higher levels of curve correction while patients are supine, and could be preferable for patients, but evidence of efficacy is limited. This is the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of ‘full-time bracing’ versus ‘night-time bracing’ in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).


UK paediatric spine clinics will recruit 780 participants aged ten to 15 years-old with AIS, Risser stage 0, 1, or 2, and curve size (Cobb angle) 20° to 40° with apex at or below T7. Patients are randomly allocated 1:1, to either full-time or night-time bracing. A qualitative sub-study will explore communication and experiences of families in terms of bracing and research. Patient and Public Involvement & Engagement informed study design and will assist with aspects of trial delivery and dissemination.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 487 - 495
1 May 2023
Boktor J Wong F Joseph VM Alshahwani A Banerjee P Morris K Lewis PM Ahuja S


The early diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome (CES) is crucial for a favourable outcome. Several studies have reported the use of an ultrasound scan of the bladder as an adjunct to assess the minimum post-void residual volume of urine (mPVR). However, variable mPVR values have been proposed as a threshold without consensus on a value for predicting CES among patients with relevant symptoms and signs. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis and systematic review of the published evidence to identify a threshold mPVR value which would provide the highest diagnostic accuracy in patients in whom the diagnosis of CES is suspected.


The search strategy used electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and AMED) for publications between January 1996 and November 2021. All studies that reported mPVR in patients in whom the diagnosis of CES was suspected, followed by MRI, were included.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1204 - 1209
1 Sep 2017
Fawi HMT Saba K Cunningham A Masud S Lewis M Hossain M Chopra I Ahuja S


To evaluate the incidence of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE), epidural haematoma, surgical site infection (SSI), and 90-day mortality after elective spinal surgery, and the effect of two protocols for prophylaxis.

Patients and Methods

A total of 2181 adults underwent 2366 elective spinal procedures between January 2007 and January 2012. All patients wore anti-embolic stockings, mobilised early and were kept adequately hydrated. In addition, 29% (689) of these were given low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) while in hospital. SSI surveillance was undertaken using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 1 | Pages 116 - 121
1 Jan 2017
Bajada S Ved A Dudhniwala AG Ahuja S


Rates of mortality as high as 25% to 30% have been described following fractures of the odontoid in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to examine whether easily identifiable variables present on admission are associated with mortality.

Patients and Methods

A consecutive series of 83 elderly patients with a fracture of the odontoid following a low-impact injury was identified retrospectively. Data that were collected included demographics, past medical history and the results of blood tests on admission. Radiological investigations were used to assess the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification and displacement of the fracture. The mean age was 82.9 years (65 to 101). Most patients (66; 79.5%) had a type 2 fracture. An associated neurological deficit was present in 11 (13.3%). All were treated conservatively; 80 (96.4%) with a hard collar and three (3.6%) with halo vest immobilisation.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1662 - 1667
1 Dec 2016
Teoh KH von Ruhland C Evans SL James SH Jones A Howes J Davies PR Ahuja S


We present a case series of five patients who had revision surgery following magnetic controlled growing rods (MGCR) for early onset scoliosis. Metallosis was found during revision in four out of five patients and we postulated a mechanism for rod failure based on retrieval analysis.

Patients and Methods

Retrieval analysis was performed on the seven explanted rods. The mean duration of MCGR from implantation to revision was 35 months (17 to 46). The mean age at revision was 12 years (7 to 15; four boys, one girl).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 5 | Pages 627 - 631
1 May 2009
Khurana A Guha AR Mohanty K Ahuja S

We reviewed 15 consecutive patients, 11 women and four men, with a mean age of 48.7 years (37.3 to 62.6), who between July 2004 and August 2007 had undergone percutaneous sacroiliac fusion using hollow modular anchorage screws filled with demineralised bone matrix.

Each patient was carefully assessed to exclude other conditions and underwent pre-operative CT and MR scans. The diagnosis of symptomatic sacroiliac disease was confirmed by an injection of local anaesthetic and steroid under image intensifier control.

The short form-36 questionnaire and Majeed’s scoring system were used for pre- and post-operative functional evaluation. Post-operative radiological evaluation was performed using plain radiographs.

Intra-operative blood loss was minimal and there were no post-operative clinical or radiological complications. The mean follow-up was for 17 months (9 to 39). The mean short form-36 scores improved from 37 (23 to 51) to 80 (67 to 92) for physical function and from 53 (34 to 73) to 86 (70 to 98) for general health (p = 0.037). The mean Majeed’s score improved from 37 (18 to 54) pre-operatively to 79 (63 to 96) post-operatively (p = 0.014). There were 13 good to excellent results. The remaining two patients improved in short form-36 from a mean of 29 (26 to 35) to 48 (44 to 52). Their persistent pain was probably due to concurrent lumbar pathology.

We conclude that percutaneous hollow modular anchorage screws are a satisfactory method of achieving sacroiliac fusion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 619 - 621
1 May 2008
Andrews J Jones A Davies PR Howes J Ahuja S

We have examined the outcome in 19 professional rugby union players who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion between 1998 and 2003. Through a retrospective review of the medical records and telephone interviews of all 19 players, we have attempted to determine the likelihood of improvement, return to professional sport and the long-term consequences. We have also attempted to relate the probability of symptoms in the neck and radicular pain in the arm to the position of play. Neck and radicular pain were improved in 17 patients, with 13 returning to rugby, the majority by six months after operation. Of these, 13 returned to their pre-operative standard of play, one to a lower level and five have not played rugby again. Two of those who returned to the game have subsequently suffered further symptoms in the neck, one of whom was obliged to retire. The majority of the players with problems in the neck were front row forwards.

A return to playing rugby union after surgery and fusion of the anterior cervical spine is both likely and safe and need not end a career in the game.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 1 | Pages 157 - 158
1 Jan 1992
Bassi J Ahuja S Singh H