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8th Combined Meeting Of Orthopaedic Research Societies (CORS)


Summary Statement

Preoperative bone-marrow-derived cell mobilization by G-CSF is a safe orthopaedic procedure and allows circulation in the blood of high numbers of CD34+ve cells, promoting osseointegration of a bone substitute.


Granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor(G-CSF) has been used to improve repair processes in different clinical settings for its role in bone-marrow stem cell(CD34+ and CD34-) mobilization. Recent literature suggests that G-CSF may also play a role in skeletal-tissue repair processes. Aim of the study was to verify the feasibility and safety of preoperative bone-marrow cell (BMC) mobilization by G-CSF in orthopaedic patients and to evaluate G-CSF efficacy in accelerating bone regeneration following opening-wedge high tibial valgus osteotomy(HTVO) for genu varum.


24 patients were enrolled in a prospective phase II trial. The osteotomy gap was filled by a hydroxyapatite-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute(HATriC). Patients were randomised to receive (GROUP A) or not receive (GROUP B) preoperatively a daily dose of 10µg/kg of G-CSF for three consecutive days, with an additional dose 4 hours before surgery. BMC-mobilization was monitored by white blood cell (WBC)-count, flow-cytometry analysis of circulating CD34+cells and Colony-forming cell assays. Patients were evaluated by: Lysholm and SF-36 scores preoperatively and at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery;

X-ray evaluation preoperatively and at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, in order to compare the percentage of osseointegration of the bone-graft junction using the semi-quantitative score of Dallari[1]

CT-scan of the host bone-substitute interface at 2 months, in order to estimate the quality of the newly formed bone at the bone-graft junction by a quantitative measure of bone density (by Hounsfield unit) at the proximal and distal bone-graft junctions.


All patients completed the treatment program without major side effects; G-CSF was well tolerated. BMC-mobilization occurred in all Group A patients, with median peak values of 110/µL (range 29–256) of circulating CD34+ve cells. Circulating clonogenic progenitors paralleled CD34+ve cell levels. A significant improvement in the SF-36-Role-Physical scale and in the Lysholm score was recorded at follow-up in Group A compared to Group B(p<0.05). At the X-ray-evaluation, there was a significant increase in osseointegration at the bone-graft junction in Group A at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months post-surgery compared to Group B(p<0.05). CT-scans of the grafted area at 2 months post-surgery showed no significant difference in the quality of the newly formed bone between the two Groups.


These results suggest that G-CSF can be safely administered preoperatively in subjects undergoing HTVO. In addition, the clinical, radiographic and CT monitoring indicate that preoperative G-CSF administration promotes bone graft substitute osseointegration. Enhanced osseointegration might be the result of the direct activity of G-CSF on the host bone or a cellular effect mediated by bone marrow-derived progenitors mobilised by G-CSF, or by a combination of all these factors. This study is a proof-of-principle that preoperative G-CSF might be an alternative treatment option to enhance bone regeneration in the field of bone marrow stem cell therapy and reconstructive orthopaedic surgery.