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8th Combined Meeting Of Orthopaedic Research Societies (CORS)



The EOS stereography system has been developed for the evaluation of prosthetic alignment. This new low-dose device provides reliable 2D/3D measurements of knee prosthesis alignment.


Achieving optimal prosthetic alignment during Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is an essential part of the surgical procedure since malpositioning can lead to early loosening of the prosthesis and eventually revision surgery. Conventional weight-bearing radiographs are part of the usual clinical follow-up after both primary TKA and revision TKA (rTKA), to assess alignment in the coronal and sagittal planes. However, proportions and angles may not be correct on radiographs since divergence exists in the vertical and horizontal planes. Furthermore estimating the exact planes by looking at the position of the patella depends on rotation in the hip joint and this may be misinterpreted by the investigator. A computed tomography (CT) scanogram can also be used. However, due to high levels of radiation and costs it is not routinely used. To this end, a new device, the EOS stereography system, has been developed. With this biplanar low-dose X-ray technique, orthogonally made 2D images and 3D reconstructions can be obtained. Advantages of EOS are that images of the leg are obtained on a 1:1 scale with an amount of radiation 800–1000 times lower than CT-scans and 10 times lower than conventional radiographs. Another advantage is that the 3D reconstructions lead to determination of the real coronal and sagittal planes. However, the software for creating 3D reconstructions is developed for the lower limbs without knee prosthesis material. Consequently a reliability study concerning the generation of 2D images and 3D reconstructions of a leg containing a knee prosthesis has not been performed yet. Therefore objective of this study was to investigate interobserver and intraobserver reliability of knee prosthetic alignment measurements after rTKA using EOS.

Patients and Methods

Forty anteroposterior and lateral images of 37 rTKA patients were included. Two observers independently performed measurements on these images twice. Measured angles were varus/valgus angle in 2D (VV2D) and 3D (VV3D). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to determine relative reliability and the Bland and Altman method was used to determine absolute reliability. T-tests were used to test potential differences between the two observers, first and second measurement sessions and 2D and 3D measurements.


Relative interobserver reliability was excellent for both VV2D and VV3D with ICCs > 0.95, and no significant differences between the two observers. For the absolute reliability of VV2D, a bias of −0.16° (95%CI: −0.31–0.01) existed between both observers. Absolute reliability of VV3D was good. Relative intraobserver reliability was excellent for both VV2D and VV3D with ICCs > 0.97. No significant difference and no bias between the first and second measurements were found. A significant difference existed between the angles measured in 2D and 3D (p=0.01).

Discussion / Conclusion

The EOS low-dose stereography system provides reliable varus/valgus measurements in 2D and 3D for the alignment of the knee joint with a knee prosthesis. However, significant differences exist between the varus/valgus measurements in 2D and in 3D. Therefore, a validation study is suggested to investigate the difference between the 2D measurements and 3D reconstructions and to find a possible explanation for this difference.