header advert
Orthopaedic Proceedings Logo

Receive monthly Table of Contents alerts from Orthopaedic Proceedings

Comprehensive article alerts can be set up and managed through your account settings

View my account settings

Visit Orthopaedic Proceedings at:



Full Access



8th Combined Meeting Of Orthopaedic Research Societies (CORS)


Summary Statement

There were significant differences in the pain experience, behaviors, and perceptions on analgesics, between the Australia and Singapore cohorts, after hospital discharge following TKR. These findings may be influenced by the ethnicity and cultural differences between these two countries.


In recent years the hospital length of stay after total knee replacement (TKR) has shortened. Hence, patients have to self-manage their pain earlier after the surgery. The aim of this study was to examine if the pain experience, self-management behaviors and potential barriers to optimal analgesia after hospital discharge for TKR differed in different ethnicity groups.

Patients & Methods

We administered a questionnaire to patients undergoing TKR in 10 Australian hospitals, and one large Singaporean hospital, two weeks following hospital discharge.1 We asked participants about their pain severity, use of analgesics, side-effects, perceptions of analgesics use, and satisfaction with pain relief at home. The two groups were compared using Chi-squared test with SPSS 20.0 with statistical significance set at p < 0.05.


171 (98%) participants from the Australian centers and 105 (94%) from the Singaporean hospital completed the questionnaire. Compared with the Singaporean patients, significantly more participants in the Australian cohort reported that their worst pain period occurred during the first two weeks at home (52% vs. 20%, p < 0.0001), and that their average pain at home was ‘severe/extreme’ (23% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001). More participants in the Australian cohort consumed an opioid alone or in combination with non-opioid analgesics (69% vs. 33%, p < 0.0001). Although many in both cohorts experienced analgesic-related side-effects, the proportion was higher in the Australian cohort (84% vs. 41%, p < 0.0001). A very much larger proportion of participants in the Australian cohort sought further medical help for their pain (60% vs. 3%, p < 0.0001). A much small proportion of patients in the Australian cohort perceived that analgesics could not control pain (26% vs. 44%, p = 0.002); were concerned about addiction (26% vs. 42%, p = 0.005) or developing tolerance to analgesics (28% vs. 49%, p < 0.0001); or preferred enduring pain than analgesic-related side-effects (25% vs. 42%, p < 0.002). There was no significant difference in satisfaction with analgesia between the two cohorts (64% vs. 74%, p = 0.179).


Following hospital discharge for TKR, there were differences in the pain experience, opioid consumption, side-effects, and perceptions of analgesics, between the Australian and Singaporean cohorts. Ethnic or cultural differences might have influenced the differences found, as the Australian cohort mostly comprised of Caucasians while the Singaporean cohort comprised exclusively patients of Asian origin. Interestingly, despite more participants in the Australian cohort experiencing severe pain and higher incidence of analgesic-related side-effects, the proportion who were satisfied with analgesia during the first two weeks after hospital discharge were similar, suggesting that satisfaction is a complex concept influenced by the interplay of many factors. Future studies are required to examine the extent to which ethnicity and cultural factors determine the pain intensity, behaviours and perceptions reported by patients after TKR.