This was a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial to compare the 90-day 1) incidence of surgical site complications (SSC); 2) health care utilization (the number of dressing changes, readmission, and reoperation); and 3) the patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in high-risk patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) with postoperative closed incision negative pressure wound therapy (ciNPT) versus a standard of care (SOC) silver-impregnated occlusive dressing.
A total of 294 rTKA patients (15 centers) at high-risk for wound complications were prospectively randomized to receive either SOC or ciNPT (n = 147 each). The ciNPT system was adjusted at 125 mmHg of suction. Investigated outcomes were assessed weekly up to 90 days after surgery. A preset interim analysis was conducted at 50% of the intended sample size, with planned discontinuation for clear efficacy/harm if a significance of p < 0.005 was attained.
A total of 242 patients completed the required follow-up (ciNPT: n = 124 (84.4%); SOC: n = 118 (80.3%)). Demographics, baseline comorbidities, causes of revision (prosthetic joint infection, aseptic loosening, implant-related, and periprosthetic fractures), and duration of treatment were similar in both cohorts (p > 0.05). Intention to treat analysis demonstrated lower rates of SSC with ciNPT (3.4%) compared to SOC (14.3%) (p = 0.0013) (Table 1 – not included in the proceeding). Similar outcomes were obtained with the modified intention to treat analysis (p = 0.0013). The ciNPT cohort exhibited lower readmission rates (p = 0.0208), and number of dressing changes (p = 0.0003). Conversely, differences in the 90-day incidence of SSI and measured patient-reported outcomes did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05).
ciNPT mitigates the risk of SSC and readmission among high-risk rTKA patients. The lower frequency of dressing changes within the ciNPT cohort may provide added value for healthcare utilization without compromising pain and function.
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