Recent reports show that spinopelvic mobility influences outcome following total hip arthroplasty. This scoping review investigates the relationship between spinopelvic parameters (SPPs) and symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).
A systematic search of EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane for literature related to SPPs and FAI was undertaken as per PRISMA guidelines. Clinical outcome studies and prospective/retrospective studies investigating the role of SPPs in symptomatic FAI were included. Review articles, case reports and book chapters were excluded. Information extracted pertained to symptomatic cam deformities, pelvic tilt, acetabular version, biomechanics of dynamic movements and radiological FAI signs.
The search identified 42 papers for final analysis out of 1168 articles investigating the link between SPPs and pathological processes characteristic of FAI. Only one (2.4%) study was of level 1 evidence, five (11.9%) studies) were level 2, 17 (40.5%) were level 3 and 19 (45.2%) were level 4. Three studies associated FAI pathology with a greater pelvic incidence (PI), while four associated it with a smaller PI. Anterior pelvic tilt was associated with radiographic overcoverage parameters of FAI. In dynamic movements, decreased posterior pelvic tilt was a common feature in symptomatic FAI patients at increased hip flexion angles. FAI patients additionally demonstrated reduced sagittal pelvic ROM during dynamic hip flexion. Six studies found kinematic links between sagittal spinopelvic movement and sagittal and transverse plane hip movements.
Our study shows that spinopelvic parameters can influence radiological and clinical manifestations of FAI, with pelvic incidence, acetabular version and muscular imbalances being aetiologically implicated. These factors may be amenable to non-surgical therapy. Individual spinopelvic mechanics may predispose to the development of FAI. If FAI pathoanatomy already exists, sagittal pelvic parameters can influence whether FAI symptoms develop and is an area of further research interest.