Extraspinal osteoarticular tuberculosis (TOA-ER) is a rare form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. It remains a topical problem not only in underdeveloped countries but also in developed countries due to cases of immune deficiency. Through a study of 40 cases, we specify the current diagnostic aspects of TOA-ER and detail their therapeutic and evolutionary modalities.
The mean age of our patients was 40 years with a clear predominance of females observed (SR = 0.66). 76.31% of the cases were from a rural setting. The impairment was single-focal in 72.5%. Associated tuberculosis location was found in 59% of cases. Pain and swelling were the main clinical symptoms. Signs of tuberculous impregnation were found in less than half of the cases. The IDR was positive in 67%. All patients underwent an appropriate radiological exploration consisting of a standard x-ray (30 cases), CT (21 cases) and MRI (23 cases). technetium-99m bone scintigraphy, performed in 15 cases, detected 5 infra-clinical osteoarticular locations. 77.5% of patients had formal pathological and / or bacteriological confirmation of the diagnosis. All patients had adequate anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy with a mean duration of 18 months. 67% of patients had a surgical debridement procedure.
After a mean follow-up of 5 years, the outcome was favourable in 75.2% of cases. A microbiological cure at the cost of serious functional sequelae was noted in 12.8% of cases. The outcome was unfavourable with relapse observed in 4.8% of cases and death in 7.2% of cases.
Extraspinal osteoarticular tuberculosis is a fairly common condition in our country. Its insidious clinical course is the cause of diagnostic and therapeutic delay. Its treatment is mainly medical. The surgery keeps some indications. Good therapeutic adherence and early diagnosis are the best guarantees of good therapeutic results.