Success rate of debridement, antimicrobial and implant retention (DAIR) in high suspicion of early PJI after primary arthroplasty is 70–80%. No studies have been performed focusing on outcome of DAIR after revision arthroplasty of the hip (THA) or knee (TKA). The aim of this study is to investigate the outcome of DAIR in suspected early PJI after revision THA or TKA and to identify risk factors for failure.
In this retrospective study, we identified early DAIRs after revision THA or TKA performed between January 2012 and August 2019. All patients received empirical antibiotics directly after the DAIR procedure. Antimicrobial treatment was adjusted to the tissue culture results. Success was defined as: 1) implant retention; 2) no repeated revision arthroplasty or supervised neglect after treatment; 3) no persistent or recurrent PJI after treatment and no administration of suppressive antimicrobial therapy; 4) survival of the patient. Infection free success was defined as: 1) no persistent or recurrent PJI after treatment; 2) no administration of suppressive antimicrobial therapy.
The overall success rate after one year of 100 cases with early DAIR after revision THA or TKA was 79% and infection free success rate was 85%. In PJI cases, empirical antimicrobial mismatch with causative micro-organisms was associated with lower success rate (70%) than non-mismatch (95%) (p=0.02). No patients from the non-PJI group failed after one year versus 13 failures within the PJI group. A consecutive DAIR within 90 days after the first DAIR was warranted in 24 cases. Only 4 of 20 PJI cases failed despite the consecutive DAIR.
In high suspicion of early PJI after revision arthroplasty, DAIR is a good treatment option with comparable outcome with DAIR after primary arthroplasty. A consecutive DAIR should not be avoided when infection control fails within 90 days after the first DAIR to prevent explantation of the prosthesis. Antimicrobial mismatch is associated with failure and should be avoided.