Despite the availability of numerous tests, the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection (PJI) continues to be complex. Although several studies have suggested that coagulation-related markers, such as D-dimer and fibrinogen, may be promising tools in the diagnosis of prosthetic infections, their role is still controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum D-dimer and fibrinogen in patients with painful total knee replacement.
83 patients with painful total knee replacement and suspected peri-prosthetic infection were included. All patients underwent pre-operative blood tests to evaluate inflammation indices (ESR and CRP) and serum D-Dimer and Fibrinogen levels. The diagnostic performance of the tests was assessed using the ICM definition as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the D-dimer and fibrinogen was measured by assessing sensitivity, specificity and by calculating the area under the ROC curve.
The definition of prosthetic infection based on the ICM criteria has made it possible to classify 40 peri-prosthetic infections and 43 aseptic failures. The mean value of fibrinogen, D-Dimer, VES and PCR observed in patients with prosthetic infection was significantly higher than in patients with aseptic failure [fibrinogen 468 mg / dl vs 331 mg / dl, p <0.001; D-Dimero 2177 ng/mL vs. 875 ng / mL, p <0.005], ESR 49 mm / hr vs 24 mm/h, p <0.001; PCR 25.5 mg /L vs 8.9 mg/L, p <0.001]. The optimal threshold value of the fibrinogen indicative of the presence of infection was 418 mg/dl, with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 88%. The serum concentration of d-dimer greater than 945 ng / ml showed a sensitivity of 72.5% and a specificity of 76.7%.
Although in this multicenter prospective study we found that serum D-dimer may have significantly higher statistical values in PJI than aseptic failures, its diagnostic power appears however limited when compared with other markers including plasma fibrinogen. Fibrinogen is regularly analyzed before surgery, the evaluation of this marker does not involve additional costs. The diagnostic accuracy appears to be similar to that of classic markers such as the level of PCR and VES. Plasma D-dimer may have a limited value in the diagnosis of PJI unlike plasma fibrinogen which has shown moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity. However, in our limited series of cases, both tests cannot be used alone in the diagnosis of infection but could contribute to the diagnosis if contextualized to ves and pcr.