Dalbavancin is a novel second-generation lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with strong activity against many gram-positive bacteria and a prolonged half-life of 6–11 days. This allows a once-a-week intravenous application and therefore an outpatient intravenous therapy. Currently, only little is known about the use of Dalbavancin in Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The aim of this retrospective study, was to compare the outcome of hip and knee periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in patients who received dalbavancin (DAL) with patients which was treated by standard of care antimicrobial agents (SoC).
Between 02/2017 and 02/2020 a total of 89 (42 male/47 female) patients with PJI of the hip 56/89 (62.9%) and knee 33/89 (37.1%) who received at least one dosage of Dalbavancin were included. A 1:1 propensity-score (PS) matching between the DAL-group (n=89) and the SoC-group (n=89) was performed, using defined demographic covariates such as body-mass-index, age, sex, causative pathogens, knee or hip joint and infection after primary or revision surgery, surgical site infections, Charlson-comorbidity index and the types of infection (acute, late acute and chronic). Patient's demographics were analysed by our prospectively maintained institutional arthroplasty registry and PJI database. We analysed the outcome of the included patients evaluate the re-infection and re-revision rate and gave details about surgical management and the type of PJI with a minimum follow-up of one year.
Microbiological and clinical successes were achieved in 69 (77.5%) patients of the DAL-group and in 66 (74.2%) patients of the SoC-group. In the DAL-group 13 (14.6%) and in the SoC-group 12 (13.5%) patients had an infection related re-revision. Median follow-up was 706 (369; 1310) days in the DAL-group and 1329 (9; 3,549) days in the SoC-group. Overall, polymicrobial infections were found in 20 procedures (DAL-group: 10; SoC-group: 10) and monomicrobial infections in 154 (DAL-group: 75; SoC-group: 79). Polymicrobial infections were found in 20 patients and monomicrobial infections in 154. The most common microorganisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis n=63 (32.3%), Staphylococcus aureus n=27 (13.8%) and Cutibacterium spp. n=22 (11.3%). There are significantly less Gram-positive microorganisms (p=0.034) after re-revisions in patients with DAL treatment.
Dalbavancin has excellent safety and high clinical effectiveness for Gram-positive PJIs.