This study evaluated target tissue concentrations of double dose cefuroxime administered intravenously as either one 15 min infusion of 3,000 mg (Group 1) or two single 15 min infusions of 1,500 mg administered 4 h apart (Group 2).
Sixteen pigs were randomised into two groups of eight. Cortical and cancellous bone, synovial fluid of the knee joint and subcutaneous adipose tissue concentrations were measured based on sampling via microdialysis. Plasma samples were collected as a reference. Comparison of the groups was based on time with concentrations above relevant minimal inhibitory concentrations (fT>MIC) of 4 μg/mL.
The mean time fT>MIC (4 μg/mL) across compartments was longer for Group 2 (280–394 min) than for Group 1 (207–253 min) (p<0.01). Cortical bone showed a tendency towards longer fT>MIC (4 μg/mL) in Group 2 (280 min) than in Group 1 (207 min) (p=0.053). Within 50 min after administration, the mean concentration of 4 μg/mL was reached in all compartments for both groups. The mean concentrations decreased below 4 μg/mL after approximately 4 h (Group 1) and 3 h (Group 2) from initiation of administration (time zero).
During an 8 h interval, double-dose cefuroxime administered as 2 × 1,500 mg with a 4 h interval provides longer time above MIC breakpoint for Staphylococcus aureus (4 μg/mL) than a single bolus of 3,000 mg cefuroxime. To maintain sufficient tissue concentrations during longer surgeries, re-administration of cefuroxime (1,500 mg) should be considered 3 h after the first administration.