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1. This is a simple clinical study of the end-results of arthrodesis of the hip joint in patients followed up and re-examined five to twenty-five years after operation.

2. The study was stimulated by our astonishment at recent reports which suggested that arthrodesis of the hip caused serious operative mortality, a high rate of wound infection, and failure of sound fusion in one of every two cases; and that even when sound fusion was gained there was always pain in the back and usually stiffness of the knee. To say that we were astonished puts it mildly.

3. This review includes 120 patients aged from ten to seventy years, treated for osteoarthritis of the hip joint by intra-articular arthrodesis with the internal fixation of a nail, usually with an iliac graft, and with immobilisation in plaster for not less than four months.

4. Of these 120 patients there was sound fusion of the joint, proved radiographically, in 94 per cent; a mortality of nil; and recovery of free movement of the knee joint to the right angle or far beyond in 91·5 per cent. Almost half of the patients regained normal movement, the heel touching the buttock. Only in eight patients was there less than right-angled flexion.

5. There was no pain in the back—none whatever—in 64 per cent of the patients. In 36 per cent there was some pain or discomfort. One alone said that the low back pain was worse than before the operation. Many others said that pain in the back had been relieved by the operation.

6. It is emphasised that these results were gained only from sound fixation of the joint in the mid-position with neutral rotation, no more abduction than is needed to correct true shortening, and no more flexion of the joint than that with which the patient lies on the table. The limb was immobilised in plaster for at least four months after operation. The stiff knee was mobilised by the patient's own exercise without passive stretching, force or manipulation.

7. Two other groups of patients are considered. There are fourteen treated by fixation of the joint with nail alone, an operation that was never intended to arthrodese the joint and which has long since been abandoned. The other small group is that of patients with old unreduced traumatic dislocation of the hip, a procedure in which the risks of operation are so great and the number of successful results so small as to dissuade us from attempting operative reduction.

8. After successful arthrodesis of the hip joint patients can return to every household activity and every recreation including ski-ing, mountaineering, rock climbing, or whatever else they want.

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