Femoral neck fractures account for half of all hip fractures and are recognized as a major public health problem associated with a high socioeconomic burden. Whilst internal fixation is preferred over arthroplasty for physiologically younger patients, no consensus exists about the optimal fixation device yet. The recently introduced implant Femoral Neck System (FNS) (DePuy Synthes, Zuchwil, Switzerland) was developed for dynamic fixation of femoral neck fractures and provides angular stability in combination with a minimally invasive surgical technique. Alternatively, the Hansson Pin System (HPS) (Swemac, Linköping, Sweden) exploits the advantages of internal buttressing. However, the obligate peripheral placement of the pins, adjacent to either the inferior or posterior cortex, renders the instrumentation more challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of FNS versus HPS in a Pauwels II femoral neck fracture model with simulated posterior comminution. Forty-degree Pauwels II femoral neck fractures AO 31-B2.1 with 15° posterior wedge were simulated in fourteen paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric femora, followed by instrumentation with either FNS or HPS in pair-matched fashion. Implant positioning was quantified by measuring the shortest distances between implant and inferior cortex (DI) as well as posterior cortex (DP) on anteroposterior and axial X-rays, respectively. Biomechanical testing was performed in 20Â° adduction and 10Â° flexion of the specimens in a novel setup with simulated iliopsoas muscle tension. Progressively increasing cyclic loading was applied until construct failure. Interfragmentary femoral head-to-shaft movements, namely varus deformation, dorsal tilting and rotation around the neck axis were measured by means of motion tracking and compared between the two implants. In addition, varus deformation and dorsal tilting were correlated with DI and DP. Cycles to 5/10° varus deformation were significantly higher for FNS (22490±5729/23007±5496) versus HPS (16351±4469/17289±4686), P=0.043. Cycles to 5/10° femoral head dorsal tilting (FNS: 10968±3052/12765±3425; HPS: 12244±5895/13357±6104) and cycles to 5/10° rotation around the femoral neck axis (FNS: 15727±7737/24453±5073; HPS: 15682±10414/20185±11065) were comparable between the implants, P≥0.314. For HPS, the outcomes for varus deformation and dorsal tilting correlated significantly with DI and DP, respectively (P=0.025), whereas these correlations were not significant for FNS (P≥0.148).
From a biomechanical perspective, by providing superior resistance against varus deformation and performing in a less sensitive way to variations in implant placement, the angular stable Femoral Neck System can be considered as a valid alternative to the Hansson Pin System for the treatment of Pauwels II femoral neck fractures.