Local concentration of antibiotic at the site of infection is a major parameter for its efficiency. However, bone diffusion is poor leading either to their non-use (ex: gentamicin) or the use of high concentration (ex: vancomycin). Local administration could optimize their local concentration combined with lower side effects. We report the clinical experience and pharmacological results of an antibiotic loaded porous alumina used to replace infected bone in 4 patients.
Two patients had a destroyed sternum following mediastinitis; one presented a femoral chronic osteomyelitis due to MRSA and one had an infected ankle arthroplasty. The ceramic was loaded with gentamicin in three cases and vancomycin for the ankle infection. Local dosages thanks to Redon's drain and blood samples were performed. Loading was done to protect the device while implanted in an infected area and was combined with conventional antibiotic therapy.
In comparison to pharmacological parameters: Cmax/MIC>8 for gentamicin or AUC/MIC>400 for vancomycin, local concentrations were dramatically higher than the one needed (table). Vancomycin concentration was still high after H48. Meanwhile, blood samples didn't find the presence of gentamicin during the 48 hours following implantation. After more than one year of follow-up for all the patients, there is no relapse of infection or signs of device infection, whereas all samples perform during implantations grew with bacteria, meaning that loaded antibiotic played a major role avoiding device colonization in combination with surgical debridement and cleaning.
This mode of administration allows an optimization of the antibiotic delivery, maximizing local concentrations while reducing systemic toxicity. In addition, ceramic mechanical characteristics allow bone replacement (strength >3 times the one of the cancellous bone and osseointegration) and thus enables one-stage surgery instead of two-stage like for the patient with chronic osteomyelitis thanks to a good primary stability.
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