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The role of the coracoid process in the chronic impingement syndrome

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Symptomatic impingement of the rotator cuff between the humeral head and the coracoid process has been studied and three varieties recognised: idiopathic, iatrogenic and traumatic. In all three the clinical findings consisted of pain in front of the shoulder, referred to the upper arm and forearm, and especially felt during forward flexion and medial rotation; the pain could be reproduced by medial rotation with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction, or by adduction with the shoulder flexed to 90 degrees. Patients were relieved of their symptoms by restoring adequate subcoracoid clearance.

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