This paper describes a study in the human femur of the relationship between cell division in growth cartilage and overall bone growth. Growth rates for the distal femur from birth to eighteen years were determined from serial radiographs available from the Harpenden Growth Study; An average of 1-4 cm/year was found for the ages of five to eight years. The development of the growth plate is illustrated in a series of photomicrographs of femur sections. These sections were also used for quantitative histology; The length of the proliferation zone was estimated from cell counts to be twenty-four cells per column. On the basis of this value and the measured growth rate, an approximate mean cycle time of twenty days was found for the proliferating cells of the human growth plate. Since the corresponding cycle time is two days for rodent growth plates, which also have a different structure, it is unwise to extrapolate the findings in this tissue from mouse to man.