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From an anatomical study and clinical review of fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children, the following conclusions are drawn. The mechanism of injury is a violent varus force with the elbow in extension, the condyle being avulsed. by the lateral ligament and the extensor muscles. If the fracture is incomplete, with an intact hinge of pre-osseous cartilage medially, the fragment will not be displaced. If the fracture is complete the fragment may be displaced, and open reduction with internal fixation is mandatory.

The results of open reduction more than three weeks after the fracture are no better than those of no treatment at all, and may kill the lateral condylar fragment by damaging its blood supply. The major problem of a neglected fracture is tardy ulnar nerve palsy; to avoid this, immediate anterior transposition of the nerve is recommended, operation for the fracture itself being of no benefit.

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