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Volume 103-B, Issue SUPP_10 August 2021 British Hip Society (BHS) meeting, held online, 9–11 June 2021.

J Barrow A Foster M Kenawey T Board

The decision to undertake THA in a child is complex and surgery challenging. Pre-operatively patients' typically have significant pain and mobility restriction. Little is published on the functional gains after THA in this group.

The aim of this study was therefore to measure the impact THA had on the PROMS in our young patients undergoing THA, to determine QoL improvement.

This was a prospective, consecutive cohort study of patients under the age of 17 years undergoing THA by a single surgeon in a tertiary referral centre. Patient electronic notes, radiographs, and PROMS (EQ5D-Y, Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS)) were reviewed.

12 children (8 females and 4 males) underwent THA before their 17th birthday, with 5 undergoing bilateral operations (17 THA total). The mean age was 14.6 years (10.75–16.9) and mean follow-up 1.5 years. Nine of the THA were undertaken for congenital syndromes, 4 for AVN, 2 for Perthe's disease and 1 for dysplasia and idiopathic chondrolysis. The mean pre-operative OHS was 15 (1–33) improving to 31 (19–39) at 6-weeks, 44 (42–46) at a year and 48 (47–48) at 3 years. mHHS improved from a pre-operative mean of 25 (0–56) to 60 (37–92) at 6-weeks, 65 (38–84) at a year and 91 (91) at 3 years. The EQ-VAS mean score pre-operatively was 35 (8–100) improving at 6-weeks to 73 (55–96), 84 (76–96) at a year and 92 (76–100) at 3 years. All patients achieved MCID or higher for OHS. 6 patients were wheelchair users preop. All patients were independent walkers at follow-up. There were no complications.

THA in children is safe and leads to a significant positive impact on QoL as measured with validated PROMS scores. Wheelchair users can reliably gain independent walking. Further follow-up is required understand the long-term outcomes.

S Seewoonarain R Stavri S Behforootan R Abel

Hip fractures are associated with poor outcomes and high mortality rates of 30%. The current gold standard to measure bone fragility is a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan measuring bone mineral density. Yet DEXA under-diagnoses bone fragility by 50% (1). To combat the burden of bone fragility, this experimental study combined ultrasound (US) with a sophisticated computational algorithm, namely full wave inversion (FWI), to evaluate femoral bone structure.

The aims were to assess the association of bone structure between the proximal femoral diaphysis and femoral neck; secondly to evaluate whether transverse ultrasound could assess bone structure of the proximal femoral diaphysis.

Bone structure of 19 ex vivo human femora was assessed by micro-CT analysis (mean age 88.11 years, male:female 13:6)(Nikon HMXST 225). Using ImageJ/BoneJ, three 10.2mm subsections of proximal diaphysis and femoral neck underwent analysis: the total bone volume fraction, cortical parameters (bone volume fraction, porosity, thickness) and trabecular parameters (porosity, thickness, spacing and connectivity).

A unique US prototype was developed to analyse fifteen femoral diaphyseal subsections using two P4-1 transducers with a novel tomography sequence (Verasonics, Matlab ver R2019a, FWI TRUST protocol). Comparative quantitative analysis of US and Micro-CT measurements was assessed (Graphpad Prism 8.3.1).

Micro-CT analysis of the proximal femoral diaphysis demonstrated low correlation to the femoral neck (Pearson r −0.54 to 0.55). US was able to capture cortical structure, though a wide limit of agreement seen when compared to micro-CT analysis (Bland-Altman range 36–59% difference).

This novel US technique was able to capture cortical bone structure. Improvements in methodology and technology are required to improve the analysis of trabecular bone and overall accuracy. Further evaluation of US and FWI is required to develop the technique and determine its role in clinical practice.

A Wignall V Giannoudis A Jimenez C De S Sturdee P Giannoudis H Pandit A Gulati J Palan

In March 2020, the World Health Organisation declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. Multiple new guidelines were proposed and existing models of social, domestic and hospital care altered. Most healthcare systems were largely unprepared for this and this pandemic has tested their adaptability. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of covid-19 on the demographics, presentation and clinical management of patients with proximal femoral (hip) fractures.

This retrospective multi-centre cohort study compared all patients admitted with hip fractures, between 1st March and 30th May 2019 (Group PC: Pre-Covid) with hip fracture patients admitted over the same time period during the pandemic in 2020 (Group C: Covid). The data was obtained from the hospitals' local and National Hip Fracture Databases. Mortality data was checked with the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Primary outcomes were time to theatre, in-patient length of stay and 30-day mortality.

580 patients were included (304 PC, 276 C). Patient Charlson comorbidity index and Nottingham Hip Fracture scores were broadly similar across the two cohorts. There was a significant reduction in percentage of total hip replacements in Group C (11% to 5%, p=0.006). There was an increase in conservative management in group C (1% to 5%, p=0.002). The time to theatre was significantly delayed in Group C (43.7 hours C versus 34.6 hours PC, p<0.001). Overall length of hospital stay was similar in both groups (16.6 days PC versus 15 days C, p=0.089). 30-day mortality rate in Group C was 9.8% compared to 8.2% in Group PC (p=0.431), but for covid (+) patients it was significantly higher at 38.2% versus 5.8% in covid (−) patients (p<0.001).

This is one of the largest multi-centre comparative cohort study in the literature to date, examining the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the management of hip fracture patients. Whilst mortality rates were similar in both groups, covid patients were almost seven times more likely to die, reflecting the seriousness of the covid-19 infection and its sequelae in such elderly, vulnerable patients.

R Sahemey G Chahal T Lawrence

Safe and meticulous removal of the femoral cement mantle and cement restrictor can be a challenging process in revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). Many proximal femoral osteotomies have been described to access this region however they can be associated with fracture, non-union and revision stem instability. The aim of this study is to report outcomes of our previously unreported vascularised anterior window to the proximal femur.

We report on a cohort of patients who underwent cemented single and staged rTHA at our single institution by the same surgeon between 2012 and 2017 using a novel vascularised anterior window of the femur to extract the cement mantle and restrictor safely under direct vision. We describe our technique, which maintains the periosteal and muscular attachments to the osteotomised fragment, which is then repaired with a polymer cerclage cable. In all revisions a polished, taper slip, long stem Exeter was cemented. Primary outcome measures included the time taken for union and the patient reported WOMAC score.

Thirty-two rTHAs were performed in 29 consecutive patients (13 female, 16 male) with a mean age of 63.4 years (range, 47–88). The indications for revision included infection, aseptic loosening and implant malpositioning. Mean follow up was 5.3 (range, 3.2–8 years). All femoral windows achieved radiographic union by a mean of 7.2 weeks. At the latest point in follow-up the mean WOMAC score was 21.6 and femoral component survivorship was 100%. There were no intraoperative complications or additional revision surgery.

Our proposed vascularised anterior windowing technique of the femur is a safe and reproducible method to remove the distal femoral cement and restrictor under direct vision without the need for perilous instruments. This method also preserves the proximal bone stock and provides the surgeon with the option of cemented stems over uncemented revision implants that predominantly rely on distal fixation.

J Thompson J Corbett D Bye A Jones E Tissingh J Nolan

The Exeter V40 cemented polished tapered stem system has demonstrated excellent long-term outcomes. This paper presents a systematic review of the existing literature and reports on a large case series comparing implant fractures between the Exeter V40 series; 125 mm and conventional length stem systems.

A systematic literature search was performed adhering to PRISMA criteria. In parallel we performed a retrospective single centre study of Exeter V40 femoral stem prosthetic fractures between April 2003– June 2020.

There are 25 reported cases of such prosthetic fractures confined to small case series and case reports within the literature. We report an additional 19 cases to the literature (mean age 66.3 ± 11.7 years; 12 female [63%]; body mass index 32.9 ± 5.9 kg/m2). The mean time from index procedure to fracture was 7.8 years (2.5–16.3, ±3.6). Exeter V40 stem fracture incidence was 0.27%. Incidence was significantly higher in 125 mm length stems compared to ≥150 mm length stems (1.26% vs 0.13%, respectively, p <0.001) and revision arthroplasty (1.209% vs 0.149%, p <0.001). When comparing different stem length cohorts, 125-mm short-stem were associated with stem body fractures (92% vs 29%, p = 0.0095), earlier time to fracture (6.2 vs 11.0 years, p = 0.0018), younger patient age at time of fracture (62.7 vs 72.6 years old, p = 0.037) and female sex (75% vs 43%, p = 0.33).

This case series in conjunction with the systematic review provides evidence stem morphology plays a role in femoral implant fracture. This complication remains rare, although we report a significantly higher incidence at up to 17 years follow-up than in the literature. As femoral geometries remain the same, increasing BMIs in THR patients should raise concern. Short 125 mm length Exeter V40 stems undoubtedly have a role in restoring anatomy and biomechanics in smaller femoral geometries, although the surgeon has to appreciate the higher risk of stem fracture and the associated predisposing factors which may necessitate meticulous surgical technique and planning.

I Kennedy A Hrycaiczuk N Ng O Sheerins S Patil B Jones A Stark D Meek

Periprosthetic fractures (PPF) of the femur following total hip arthroplasty represent a significant complication with a rising incidence. The commonest subtype is Vancouver B2 type, for which revision to a long uncemented tapered fluted stem is a widely accepted management. In this study we compare this procedure to the less commonly performed cement-in-cement revision.

All patients undergoing surgical intervention for a Vancouver B2 femoral PPF in a cemented stem from 2008 – 2018 were identified. We collated patient age, gender, ASA score, BMI, operative time, blood transfusion requirement, change in haemoglobin (Hb) level, length of hospital stay and last Oxford Hip Score (OHS). Radiographic analysis was performed to assess time to fracture union and leg length discrepancy. Complications and survivorship of implant and patients were recorded.

43 uncemented and 29 cement-in-cement revisions were identified. There was no difference in patient demographics between groups. A significantly shorter operative time was found in the cement-in-cement group, but there was no difference in transfusion requirement, Hb change, or length of hospital stay. OHS was comparable between groups. A non-significant increase in overall complication rates was found in the revision uncemented group, with a significantly higher dislocation rate. Time of union was comparable and there were no non-unions in the cement-in-cement group. A greater degree of stem subsidence was found in the uncemented group. There was no difference in any revision surgery required in either group. Three patients in the uncemented group died in the perioperative period, compared to none in the cement-in-cement group.

With appropriate patient selection, both cement-in-cement and long uncemented tapered stem revision represent appropriate treatment options for Vancouver B2 fractures.

I Kennedy N Ng D Young N Kane A Marsh D Meek

Cement-in-cement revision of the femoral component represents a widely practiced technique for a variety of indications. In this study we compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of two polished tapered stems.

From our prospectively collated database we identified all patients undergoing cement-in-cement revision from January 2005 – 2013 who had a minimum of two years follow-up. All cases were performed by the senior author using either an Exeter short revision stem or the C-stem AMT high offset No 1. Patients were followed-up annually with clinical and radiological assessment.

Ninety-seven patients matched the inclusion criteria. There were 50 Exeter and 47 C-stem AMT components. There were no significant differences between the patient demographics in either group. Mean follow-up was 9.7 years. A significant improvement in OHS, WOMAC and SF-12 scores was observed in both cohorts. Leg lengths were significantly shorter in the Exeter group, with a mean of -4mm in this cohort compared to 0mm in the C-stem AMT group. One patient in the Exeter group had early evidence of radiological loosening. In total, 16 patients (15%) underwent further revision of the femoral component (seven in the C-stem AMT group and nine in the Exeter group). No femoral components were revised for aseptic loosening. There were two cases of femoral component fracture in the Exeter group.

Our series shows promising long-term outcomes for the cement-in-cement revision technique using either the Exeter or C-stem AMT components. These results demonstrate that cement-in-cement revision using a double or triple taper-slip design is a safe and reliable technique when used for the correct indications.

P Clewes C Lohan H Stevenson G Coates R Wood S Blackburn T Tritton R Knaggs AJ Dickson DA Walsh

Due to limitations of existing pharmacological therapies for the management of chronic pain in osteoarthritis (OA), surgical interventions remain a major component of current standard of care, with total joint replacements (TJRs) considered for people who have not responded adequately to conservative treatment. This study aimed to quantify the economic burden of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in patients with OA in England prior to TJR.

A retrospective, longitudinal cohort design was employed using Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD primary care data linked to Hospital Episode Statistics secondary care data in England. Patients (age ≥18 years) with an existing OA diagnosis of any anatomical site (Read/ICD-10) were indexed (Dec-2009 to Nov-2017) on a moderate-to-severe pain event (which included TJR) occurring within an episode of chronic pain. 5-year TJR rates from indexing were assessed via Kaplan-Meier estimates. All-cause healthcare resource utilisation and direct medical costs were evaluated in the 1–12 and 13–24 months prior to the first TJR experienced after index. Statistical significance was assessed via paired t-tests.

The study cohort comprised 5,931 eligible patients (57.9% aged ≥65 years, 59.2% female). 2,176 (36.7%) underwent TJR (knee: 54.4%; hip: 42.8%; other: 2.8%). The 5-year TJR rate was 45.4% (knee: 24.3%; hip: 17.5%; other: 6.8%). Patients experienced more general practitioner consultations in 1–12 months pre-TJR compared with 13–24 months pre-TJR (means: 12.13 vs. 9.61; p<0.0001), more outpatient visits (6.68 vs. 3.77; p<0.0001), more hospitalisations (0.74 vs. 0.62; p=0.0032), and more emergency department visits (0.29 vs. 0.25, p=0.0190). Total time (days) spent as an inpatient was higher in 1–12 months pre-TJR (1.86 vs. 1.07; p<0.0001). Mean total per-patient cost pre-TJR increased from £1,771 (13–24 months) to £2,621 (1–12 months) (p<0.0001).

Resource-use and costs incurred were substantially greater in the 12 months immediately prior to TJR, compared with 13–24 months prior. Reasons for increased healthcare and economic burden in the pre-TJR period deserve further exploration as potential targets for efforts to improve patient experience and efficiency of care.

L Farrow S Gaba G Ashcroft

The rising prevalence of osteoarthritis, associated with an ageing population, is expected to deliver increasing demand across Scotland for arthroplasty services in the future. Understanding the scale of potential change to operative workflow is essential to ensure adequate provision of services and prevent prolonged waiting times that can cause patient harm. This future service demand for primary and revision hip arthroplasty across Scotland, and the rest of the U.K., is hitherto unknown.

We set out to provide projections of future primary & revision hip arthroplasty out to 2038 utilising historical trend data (2008–2018) from the Scottish Arthroplasty Project. All analyses were performed using the Holt's exponential smoothing projection method with the forecast package in R statistics. Results were adjusted for projected future population estimates provided by National Records of Scotland. Independent age & sex group predictions were also performed. All results are presented per 100,000 population at-risk per year (/100k/year).

The predicted rise of primary hip arthroplasty for all ages is from 120/100k/year in 2018 to 152/100k/year in 2038, a 27% increase. Based on a static 3 day length of stay average this would see 4280 additional patient bed days required for primary hip arthroplasty patients per annum. The number of revision hip arthroplasty procedures for all ages is projected to fall from 14/100k/year to 4/100k/year based on historical trend data. This does not however take into account the suspect increase in primary arthroplasty numbers that is likely to influence future revision rates.

Anticipated future demand for primary hip arthroplasty will require significant additional resource and funding to prevent deterioration in quality of care and an increase in patient wait times. Demand for revision arthroplasty is set to decrease, likely on account of improved implant materials, technique, and understanding of best practice to minimise complication risk. This doesn't however take into account the impact of the complex interaction between an increasing primary arthroplasty rate and revision risk. Understanding presented projections of changes to arthroplasty demand is key to future service delivery.

S Jain J Lamb O Townsend C Scott B Kendrick R Middleton S Jones T Board R West H Pandit

Cemented total hip replacement (THR) provides excellent outcomes and is cost-effective. Polished taper-slip (PTS) stems demonstrate successful results and have overtaken traditional composite-beam (CB) stems. Recent reports indicate they are associated with a higher risk of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) compared to CB stems. This study evaluates risk factors influencing fracture characteristics around PTS and CB cemented stems.

Data were collected for 584 PFF patients admitted to eight UK centres from 25/05/2006-01/03/2020. Radiographs were assessed for Unified Classification System (UCS) grade and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) type. Statistical comparisons investigated relationships by age, gender, and stem fixation philosophy (PTS versus CB). The effect of multiple variables was estimated using multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Median (IQR) age was 79.1 (72.0–86.0) years, 312 (53.6%) patients were female, and 495 (85.1%) stems were PTS. The commonest UCS grade was type B1 (278, 47.6%). The commonest AO/OTA type was spiral (352, 60.3%). Metaphyseal-split fractures occurred only with PTS stems with an incidence of 10.1%. Male gender was associated with a five-fold reduction in odds of a type C fracture (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.41, p<0.001) compared to a type B fracture. CB stems were associated with significantly increased odds of transverse fracture (OR 9.51, 95% CI 3.72 to 24.34, p <0.001) and wedge fracture (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.16 to 11.95, p <0.05) compared to PTS stems.

This is the largest study investigating PFF characteristics around cemented stems. The commonest fracture types are B1 and spiral fractures. PTS stems are exclusively associated with metaphyseal-split fractures, but their incidence is low. Males have lower odds of UCS grade C fractures compared to females. CB stems had higher odds of bending type fractures (transverse and wedge) compared to PTS stems. Biomechanical testing is needed for validation and investigation of modifiable factors which may reduce the risk of unstable fracture patterns requiring complex revision surgery over internal fixation.

J Lukic A Rajeev B Tyas K Singisetti

Hip fractures in elderly patients are managed at both major trauma centers (MTC) and trauma units (TU). Previous evidence has demonstrated the importance of early surgery to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to the injury. The aim of this study is to compare the ‘time to theatre' and ‘30 day mortality' in TUs versus MTC in UK.

A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on NHFD was performed. The average ‘time to theatre' in hours and ‘30 day mortality' of all hospitals were analysed between January and December 2018. Further subgroup analysis was done to check for any regional variations; in each instance a Shapiro-Wilk test was used to check for normal distribution, followed by a one-way ANOVA with a Tukey's post hoc test.

Data from 158 hospitals in England (ENG), Wales (WAL) and Northern Ireland (NI) were used; 18 of which were MTC. There were 57,936 operative cases in TUs and 8606 in MTC's. The mean time (hours) to surgery from presentation was 32.51 and 32.64 for TUs and MTC respectively (p=0.513).

There was no significant difference in ‘30 day mortality' (p=0.635) between TUs (6%) and 5.7% MTC's (5.7%), MTC's and TUs in ENG, WAL and NI (p=0.555), and MTC and WAL, NI and the different regions of ENG (p=0.209).

A significant difference was observed, between the regional practice for TUs versus MTC's in ENG, WAL and NI (p=0.001) and between MTC's and TUs in WAL, NI and the different regions of ENG (p=0.001), with patients waiting significantly longer in NI for their procedure (mean=60.25 hours, p=0.001)

There was no significant difference in time to surgery or 30 day mortality between TUs and MTC's, demonstrating comparable hip fracture care, despite MTCs need to prioritise more serious injuries.

K Deere G Matharu Y Ben-Shlomo JM Wilkinson A Blom A Sayers M Whitehouse

A recent French report suggested that cobalt metal ions released from total hip replacements (THRs) were associated with an increased risk of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. If the association is causal the consequences would be significant given the millions of Orthopaedic procedures in which cobalt-chrome is used annually. We examined whether cobalt-chrome containing THRs were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, heart failure, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Data from the National Joint Registry was linked to NHS English hospital inpatient episodes for 375,067 primary THRs with up to 14·5 years follow-up. Implants were grouped as either containing cobalt-chrome or not containing cobalt-chrome. The association between implant construct and the risk of all-cause mortality and incident heart failure, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders was examined.

There were 132,119 individuals (35·2%) with an implant containing cobalt-chrome. There were 48,106 deaths, 27,406 heart outcomes, 35,823 cancers, and 22,097 neurodegenerative disorders. There was no evidence of an association that patients with cobalt-chrome implants had higher rates of any of the outcomes. For all-cause mortality there was a very small survival advantage for patients having a cobalt-chrome implant (restricted mean survival time 13·8=days, 95% CI=6·8-20·9).

Cobalt-chrome containing THRs did not have an increased risk of all-cause mortality, heart failure, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders into the second decade post-implantation. Our findings will reassure clinicians and patients that primary THR is not associated with systemic implant effects.

G Matharu D Culliford A Blom A Judge

Total hip replacement (THR) for end-stage osteoarthritis is a commonly performed cost-effective procedure, which provides patients with significant clinical improvement. Estimating the future demand for joint replacement is important to identify the healthcare resources needed. We estimated the number of primary THRs that will need to be performed up to the year 2060.

We used data from The National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man on the current volume of primary THR (n=94,936) performed in 2018. We projected future numbers of THR using a static estimated rate from 2018 applied to population growth forecast data from the UK Office for National Statistics up to 2060.

By 2060, primary THR volume would increase from 2018 levels by an estimated 37.7% (n=130,766). For both males and females demand for surgery was also higher for patients aged 70 and over, with older patients having the biggest relative increase in volume over time: 70–79 years (144.6% males, 141.2% females); 80–89 years (212.4% males, 185.6% females); 90 years and older (448.0% males, 298.2% females).

By 2060 demand for THR is estimated to increase by almost 40%. Demand will be greatest in older patients (70 years+), which will have significant implications for the health service that requires forward planning given morbidity and resource use is higher in this population. There is a backlog of current demand with cancellation of elective surgery due to seasonal flu pressures in 2017 and now Covid-19 in 2020. Orthopaedics already has the largest waiting list of any speciality. These issues will negatively impact the health services ability to deliver timely joint replacement to many patients for a number of years and require urgent planning.

G Matharu A Blom T Board M Whitehouse

Considerable debate exists regarding which agent(s) should be preferred for venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemical prophylaxis following joint replacement. We assessed the practice of surgeons regarding VTE chemical prophylaxis for primary THR and TKR, pre and post issuing of updated NICE guidance in 2018.

A survey, circulated through the British Hip Society and regional trainee networks/collaboratives, was completed by 306 UK surgeons at 187 units. VTE chemical prophylaxis prescribing patterns for surgeons carrying out primary THR (n=258) and TKR (n=253) in low-risk patients were assessed post publication of 2018 NICE recommendations. Prescribing patterns before and after the NICE publication were subsequently explored. Questions were also asked about surgeon equipoise for participation in future RCTs.

Following the new guidance, 34% (n=87) used low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) alone, 33% (n=85) aspirin (commonly preceded by LMWH), and 31% (n=81) direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs: with/without preceding LMWH) for THR. For TKR, 42% (n=105) used aspirin (usually monotherapy), 31% (n=78) LMWH alone, and 27% (n=68) DOAC (with/without preceding LMWH). NICE guidance changed the practice of 34% of hip and 41% of knee surgeons, with significantly increased use of aspirin preceded by LMWH for THR (before=25% vs. after=73%;p<0.001), and aspirin for TKR (before=18% vs. after=84%;p<0.001). Significantly more regimens were NICE guidance compliant after the 2018 update for THR (before=85.7% vs. after=92.6%;p=0.011) and TKR (before=87.0% vs. after=98.8%;p<0.001). Support from surgeons for future RCTs was dependent on the clinical question, ranging from 48% participation in trials (effectiveness of aspirin vs. a DOAC) to 79% (effectiveness of 14 days LMWH vs. 28 days LMWH).

Over one-third of surveyed surgeons changed their VTE chemical prophylaxis in response to 2018 NICE recommendations, with more THR and TKR surgeons now compliant with latest NICE guidance. The major change in practice was an increased use of aspirin for VTE chemical prophylaxis. Furthermore, there is an appetite amongst UK surgeons for participating in future RCTs, with a trial comparing standard versus extended duration LMWH likely feasible in current practice.

T Fowler A Blom M Reed A Aquilina A Sayers M Whitehouse

Total hip replacements (THRs) are performed by surgeons at various stages in their training, with varying levels of senior supervision. There is a balance between protecting training opportunities for the next generation of surgeons, while limiting the exposure of patients to unnecessary risk during the training process. The aim of this study was to examine the association between surgeon grade, the senior supervision of trainees, and the risk of revision following THR.

We included 603 474 primary THRs recorded in the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Isle of Man (NJR) between 2003 and 2016 for an indication of osteoarthritis. Exposures were the grade of the surgeon (consultant or trainee), and whether trainees were supervised by a scrubbed consultant or not. Outcomes were all-cause revision, the indication for revision, and the temporal variation in risk of revision (all up to 10 years). Net failure was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjusted analyses used Cox regression and flexible parametric survival analysis (adjusted for patient, operative, and unit level factors).

There was no association between surgeon grade and all-cause revision up to 10 years (crude hazard ratio (HR) 0·999, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.936–1.065; p=0.966); a finding which persisted with adjusted analysis. Adjusted analysis demonstrated an association between trainees operating without supervision by a scrubbed consultant and an increase in all-cause revision (HR 1.100, 95% CI 1.002–1.207; p=0.045). There was an association between the trainee-performed THRs and revision due to instability (crude HR 1.143, 95% CI, 1.007–1.298; p=0.039). However, this was not observed in fully adjusted models, or when trainees were supervised by a scrubbed consultant.

Within the current training system in the United Kingdom, trainees achieve comparable outcomes to consultant surgeons when supervised by a scrubbed consultant. Revision rates are higher when trainees are not supervised by a scrubbed consultant but remain within internationally recognised acceptable limits.

V Gupta C Thomas H Parsons A Metcalfe P Foguet R King

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most successful surgical procedures of modern times, however debate continues as to the optimal orientation of the acetabular component and how to reliably achieve this. We hypothesised that functional CT-based planning with patient specific instruments using the Corin Optimised Positioning System (OPS) would provide more accurate component alignment than the conventional freehand technique using 2D templating.

A pragmatic single-centre, patient-assessor blinded, randomised control trial of patients undergoing THA was performed. 54 patients (age 18–70) were recruited to either OPS THA or conventional THA. All patients received a cementless acetabular component. Patients in both arms underwent pre- and post-operative CT scans, and four functional x-rays (standing and seated). Patients in the OPS group had a 3D surgical plan and bespoke guides made. Patients in the conventional group had a surgical plan based on 2D templating x-rays, and the pre-operative target acetabular orientation was recorded by the surgeon. The primary outcome measure was the difference between planned and achieved acetabular anteversion and was determined by post-operative CT scan performed at 6 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), Oxford Hip Score (OHS), EQ-5D and adverse events.

In the OPS group, the achieved acetabular anteversion was within 10° of the plan in 96% of cases, compared with only 76% of cases in the conventional group. For acetabular inclination, the achieved position in the OPS group was within 10° of the plan in 96% of cases, compared with in only 84% of cases in the conventional group. These differences were not statistically significant. The clinical outcomes were comparable between the two groups.

Large errors in acetabular orientation appear to be reduced when functional CT-based planning and patient-specific instruments are used compared to the freehand technique, but no statistically significant differences were seen in the difference between planned and achieved angles. Larger studies are needed to analyse this in more detail and to determine whether the reduced numbers of outliers lead to improved clinical outcomes.

O Nix A Al-Wizni R West H Pandit J Lamb

Post-operative periprosthetic fracture of the femur (POPFF) is a growing problem associated with increased mortality. Most registry derived estimates of mortality only record patients who undergo revision and cohort studies are generally limited to a single center, which makes comparison for the purposes of service improvement difficult. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies reporting mortality following POPFF in the last decade.

Study methodology was peer-reviewed (PROSPERO: CRD42020170819). Literature search was conducted using Medline and EMBASE. Primary exposure was the diagnosis of POPFF, and the primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality: whilst an inpatient, within 30-days, within 90-days and within one year of POPFF. Proportion of patients dying (95% CI [confidence interval]) was estimated using metaregression. Results were compared to mortality following neck of femur fracture (NOF) from international NOF registry data.

4841 patients from 35 cohort studies were included. Study quality was generally low with a majority limited to a single centre. Weighted mean follow-up was 2.3 years and the most common POPFF was UCS B. Pooled proportion dying as an inpatient was 2.4% (95% CI 1.6% to 3.4%). Pooled proportion dying within 30 days was 3.3% (95% CI 2.0% to 5.0%). Pooled proportion dying within 90 days was 4.8% (95% CI 3.6% to 6.1%). Pooled proportion dying within one year was 13.4% (95% CI 11.9% to 14.8%). Mortality following POPFF was similar to that of NOF up to 30 days, but better at one year.

3.3% of patients die following POPFF within 30 days of injury. Mortality is similar to that experienced by patients following NOF up to 30 days, but better at one year, which may represent the lower underlying risk of death in the POPFF cohort. These results may form the basis for evaluation of services treating POPFF in the future.

J Lamb O Coltart I Adekanmbi T Stewart H Pandit

There is a strong association between the presence of a calcar collar on a cementless stem and a reduced risk of revision surgery for periprosthetic fracture of the femur (PFF). A medial calcar collar may act to reduce relative movement between the implant and femur during PFF, through calcar-collar contact (CCC). The aims were:

Estimate the effect of CCC on periprosthetic fracture mechanics.

Estimate the effect of initial calcar-collar separation on the likelihood of CCC.

Three groups of six composite femurs were implanted with a fully coated collared cementless femoral stem. Neck resection differed between groups (group 1 = no additional resection, group 2 = 3mm additional resection, group 3 = 6mm additional resection). PFF were simulated using a previously published technique. Fracture torque and rotational displacement were measured and torsional stiffness and rotational work prior to fracture were estimated. Results between trials where CCC did and did not occur where compared using Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression estimated the odds (OR) of failing with 95% confidence interval (CI) to achieve CCC for a given initial separation.

Where CCC occurred fracture torque was greater (47.33 [41.03 to 50.45] Nm versus 38.26 [33.70 to 43.60] Nm, p= 0.05) and torsional stiffness was greater (151.38 [123.04 to 160.42] rad.Nm−1 versus 96.86 [84.65 to 112.98] rad.Nm−1, p <0.01).

CCC was occurred in all cases in group one, 50% in group two and 0% in group three. OR of failure to obtain CCC increased 3.8 fold (95% CI 1.6 to 30.2, p <0.05) for each millimetre of separation.

Resistance to fracture and construct stiffness increased when a the collar made contact with the calcar prior to fracture and the chances of contact decrease with increasing initial separation at the time of implantation. Surgeons should aim to achieve a calcar-collar distance of less than 1mm following implantation to ensure CCC and to reduce the risk of fracture

A Carrothers J Alsousou D Chou J Rawal J Queally P Hull

Displaced acetabular fractures in the older patient present significant treatment challenges. There is evidence the morbidity and mortality associated is similar to the fractured neck of femur cohort. Despite growing literature, there remains significant controversy regarding treatment algorithms; varying between conservative management, to fracture fixation and finally surgical fixation and simultaneous THA to allow immediate full weight bearing.

£250k NIHR, Research for Patient Benefit (Ref: PB-PG-0815-20054). Trial ethical approval (17/EE/0271). After national consultation, 3 arms included; conservative management, fracture fixation and simultaneous fracture fixation with THA. Statistical analysis required minimum 12 patients/3 arms to show feasibility, with an optimum 20/arm. Inclusion criteria; patients >60 years & displaced acetabular fracture. Exclusion criteria: open fracture, THA in situ, pre-injury immobility, polytrauma. Primary outcome measure - ability recruit & EQ-5D-5L at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures (9 months); OHS, Disability Rating Index, radiographs, perioperative physiological variables including surgery duration, blood loss, complications and health economics.

11 UK level 1 major trauma centres enrolled into the trial, commenced December 2017. Failure surgical equipoise was identified as an issue regarding recruitment. Full trial recruitment (60 patients) achieved; 333 patients screened. 66% male, median age 76 (range 63–93), median BMI 25 (range 18–37), 87% full mental capacity, 77% admitted from own home. 75% fall from standing height. 60% fractures; anterior column posterior hemi-transverse. Trial feasibility confirmed December 2020. Presented data- secondary outcomes that are statistically significant in improvement from baseline for only the fix and replace arm, with acceptable trial complications. Issues are highlighted with conservative management in this patient cohort.

Our unique RCT informs design and sample size calculation for a future RCT. It represents the first opportunity to understand the intricacies of these treatment modalities. This RCT provides clinicians with information on how best to provide management for this medically complex patient cohort.

JS Palmer H Fraig C Wilson S Garrett

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a common cause of preventable deafness in adults and exposure to loud noise at work is a significant risk factor for its development. In order to protect the hearing of workers in the U.K., the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), on behalf of the Department for Work and Pensions, established the Control of Noise at Work Regulations (2005). The objectives of this study were to define the levels of noise exposure for the surgeon, assistant, scrub nurse and anaesthetist during total hip and knee arthroplasty surgery. In addition, we sought to determine whether the noise exposure during these procedures reaches or exceeds the action values set out by the U.K. Noise at Work Regulations (2005). To our knowledge no real-time assessment of personal noise exposure has been performed simultaneously on multiple members of the theatre team during arthroplasty surgery.

Individual noise exposure during arthroplasty hip and knee surgery was recorded using a personal noise dosemeter system model 22 (DM22) (Pulsar instruments, Filey, U.K.). Recordings were taken real-time during five separate theatre sessions. Each theatre session included two arthroplasty procedures and lasted approximately 4hrs. Personal noise exposure was expressed in terms of peak sound pressure and an average noise exposure over an 8-hour time-period to reflect the noise experienced by the ear over a working day.

In all three sessions involving total hip replacement surgery the peak sound pressure, for the operating surgeon, exceeded the exposure action values set out by the U.K. Noise at Work Regulations. Theatre sessions involving total knee replacement surgery did not exceed any exposure action values.

The peak sound pressures experienced during total hip replacement surgery are too high and mandate that the surgeon should be provided with appropriate hearing protection. In addition, if the upper exposure action value is routinely exceeded then the theatre should be designated a hearing protection zone.

G Chan A Narang W Kieffer B Rogers

The global COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in 71 million confirmed global cases and 1.6 million deaths. Hip fractures are a major global health burden with 70 000 admissions per annum in the UK.

This multicentre UK study aimed to assess the impact of perioperative COVID-19 status on 30-day and 120-day mortality after a hip fracture.

A prospective multicentre study of 10 hospitals in South England comprising eight DGHs and two MTCs treating c.8% of the annual incidence of hip fractures in England was performed. All fragility hip fractures presenting between 1st March to 30th April 2020 were eligible for inclusion. COVID-19 infection was diagnosed after a positive PCR swab.

Expected 30-day mortality was calculated using the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), with non COVID-19 30-day mortality compared against the same study period in 2019.

746 patients were included in this study with 87 (12%) testing positive for COVID-19. Crude 30-day mortality for COVID-19 positive hip fractures was 35% compared to 6% for COVID-19 negative patients, with COVID-19 positive 30-mortality rates being significantly higher than expected based on NHFS alone (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.57–5.75, p<0.001). There was no significant difference between expected NHFS and actual 2019 and COVID-19 negative hip fracture rates (p>0.05).

Overall 120-day mortality was significantly higher for COVID-19 positive (46%) compared to COVID-19 negative (15%) hip fractures (p<0.001). However, mortality rates from 31–120 days were not significantly different despite COVID-19 status (p=0.107).

COVID-19 results in significant increases in both 30 and 120-day mortality, above the expected mortality rates when confounding comorbidities are accounted for by the NHFS. However, COVID-19 positive patients who survive beyond 30-days have comparable mortality rates up to 120-days when compared to COVID-19 negative patients. Efforts should therefore be made to mitigate known risks for 30-day mortality such as time to theatre, to improve 30-day mortality rates in COVID-19 positive patients thus increasing the likelihood of long-term survival.

G Stamp K Bhargava A Malviya

Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) has been established as an effective technique to treat symptomatic hip dysplasia in young patients. Its role in treating borderline dysplasia and acetabular retroversion is evolving.

The aim of this study was to:

Examine the prospectively collected outcomes following a minimally invasive PAO in a large cohort of patients

Compare the outcomes of patients with severe dysplasia, borderline dysplasia and acetabular retroversion.

This is a single-surgeon review of patients operated in a high-volume centre with prospectively collected data between 2013 and 2020, and minimal followup of six months. PAO was performed using a minimally invasive modified Smith Peterson approach. 387 patients were operated during the study period and 369 eligible patients included in the final analysis. Radiographic parameters were assessed by two authors (GS and KB) with interrater reliability for 25 patients of 84–95% (IntraClass Coefficient). Patient reported outcome measures (i-HOT 12, NAHS, UCLA and EQ-5D) were collected prospectively. Case note review was also performed to collate complication data and blood transfusion rates.

Radiological parameters improved significantly after surgery with Lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) improving by 16.4 degrees and Acetabular index (AI) improved by 15.8 degrees.

Patient reported outcome measures showed significant improvement in post-op NAHS, iHOT and EQ5D at 2 years compared to pre-op scores (NAHS=30.45, iHOT=42, EQ5D=0.32, p=0.01). This significance is maintained over 2 years post procedure (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between the three groups (severe dysplasia, borderline dysplasia and acetabular retroversion).

Clinical outcomes showed an overall complication rate n=31, 8.3% (Major complication rate: n=3, 0.81%). Non-union rate: n=11, 2.96% of which 3 required fixation (0.81%). Hip arthroscopy post PAO: n=7, 1.9%. Conversion to THR: n=4, 1.1%. Blood transfusion requirement: n=46, 12.5%. No patient developed a major neurovascular injury.

In this large single-centre study, patients had radiological and reported outcome improvements following surgery. Overall, there was a low complication rate, providing further evidence of the safety and efficacy of PAO for ameliorating pain and long-lasting results in the management of symptomatic hip dysplasia.

R Holleyman MA Sohatee M Bankes T Andrade C McBryde T Board J Conroy M Wilson A Malviya V Khanduja

FAI may cause pain or functional impairment for an individual, as well as potentially resulting in arthritis and degeneration of the hip joint. Results from recent randomised control trials demonstrate the superiority of surgery over physiotherapy in patients with FAI. However, there is paucity of evidence regarding which factors influence outcomes for FAI surgery, most notably on patient reported outcomes measures (PROMs).

Our study looks to explore factors influencing the outcomes for patients undergoing surgery for FAI utilising data from the Non-Arthroplasty Hip Registry.

This study is a retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively via the NAHR database. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria, who underwent surgery between January 2011 and September 2019 were identified and included in the study. Follow-up data was captured in September 2020 to allow a minimum of 12 months follow-up.

Patients consenting to data collection received questionnaires to determine EQ-5D Index and iHOT-12 scores preoperatively and at 6 months, 1, 2- and 5-year follow-up.

Changes in outcome scores were analysed for all patients and sub-analysis was performed looking at the influence of; FAI morphological subtype, age, and sex, on outcome scores.

Our cohort included 4,963 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for FAI. There was significant improvement from pre-operative PROMs when compared with those at 6 and 12 months.

Pre-operatively, and at 12-month follow-up, iHOT-12 scores were significantly better for the cam / mixed groups compared to the pincer group (p<0.01).

In multivariable regression analysis, pincer pathology and a high-grade chondral lesion were associated significantly poorer iHOT-12 improvement at 6 and 12 months (p<0.05)

Age (<40 vs >40) demonstrated no statistical significance when considering 12 months outcome scores.

This study demonstrates that hip arthroscopy is an effective treatment for patients with symptomatic FAI and shows statistically significant improvements at 12 months.

The findings of this study are relevant to orthopaedic surgeons who manage young adults with hip pathology. This will help them to; predict which patients may benefit from operative intervention, and better inform patients, when undertaking shared decision making.

J Shelton S Dorman J Gollogly

Arthroplasty has consistently shown ‘beneficial and often dramatic improvements in quality of life'. In developed healthcare systems arthroplasty has evolved to minimised complications through evidence-based implant selection, rigorous infection control and high volume training. The Children's Surgical Centre has performed 256 THAs since 2007, We aim to assess the outcome of arthroplasty in a LMIC. Our primary outcome was all cause of re-operation and our secondary outcome was any complications not requiring return to theatre.

A retrospective review of all consecutive THA since 2007 was conducted. Electronic and physical case notes were reviewed and basic demographics, indication for THA, risk factors for complications, implant combinations and complications were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using MedCalc.

A total of 256 THA were identified in 225 patients. The mean age was 43, with a M2:1F ratio. The most common pathologies were (1)AVN (44%), (2)OA (11%) and (3)DDH (11%). Revision rate was 13%. The mean time from implantation to revision was 2.8 years (0–9). The most common reasons for revision were (1)stem fracture (5.8%), (2)aseptic loosening (4.8%) and (3)infection (2.7%). Six different stems have been use over the time period. The best surviving were the Zimmer ML Taper and the UMA Muller stems. The UMA C-Stem was the worst performing which suffered 100% stem fracture. 109 complications were identified in 85 patients (33.2%). The three most common complications were (1)aseptic loosening (10.5%) (2)stem fracture (5.8%) and (3)dislocation (5.8%). Previous surgery (n=44) was found to be a significant risk for complications but not infection. OHS initially improved but began to decline after year 3.

Patients present to CSC with neglected hip pathology, disability and significant pre-operative deformity. These patients benefit from THA and the initially high complication rates at CSC are declining suggesting the apex of the ‘learning curve' has passed. Cheap poorly manufactured implants continue to cause catastrophic failure.

A Adamczyk H Nessek P Kim R Feibel N McGoldrick P Beaulé G Grammatopoulos

Over 62,000 total hip arthroplasty (THA) cases are performed each year in Canada, with an estimated annual healthcare system cost of $1.4 billion and resulting in 4 billion tonnes of waste annually (6,600 tonnes per day). The aims of this study were 1) Assess satisfaction of current/standard set-up amongst different stakeholders. 2) Assess energy, economic and waste cost of current set up and apply lean methodology to improve efficiency 3. Design and test SLIM setup based on lean principles and its ability to be safely implemented into everyday practice.

A Needs Assessment Survey was circulated to OR nursing staff to assess the need for change in the current THA OR setup at an academic tertiary referral hospital. Through feedback, surgeon input, and careful analysis of current instrumentation, the “SLIM setup” was created. Standard instrument tray numbers for elective THA were reduced from 9 to 3 trays. Eighty patients were then randomised to either the standard or SLIM setup. Four staff arthroplasty surgeons each randomised 20 patients to either standard or SLIM setup. OR time, blood loss, 90-day complication rates, cost/case, instrument weight (kg/case), total waste in kg/case (non-recyclable), case set-up time, and number of times and number of extra trays required were compared between groups.

The majority of nursing staff demonstrated dissatisfaction with the current THA setup and felt current processes lacked efficiency. Use of the SLIM setup, was associated with the following savings in comparison to standard (Trays = −6 (720kg/case); Waste = −1.5 kg/case; Cost = − $560 ($50.00 × 6 trays + 10min saved × $26.00 /min OR setup time)). OR time, blood loss and 90-day complication rate were not statistically different (p >0.05); however, set up time was significantly shorter in comparison to standard. Extra instrumentation was opened in < 10% of cases.

A more minimalist approach to THA can be undertaken using the SLIM setup, potentially resulting in cost, energy and waste savings. Estimate savings of $560,000 and 1.65 tonnes reduction in waste per 1,000 THAs performed may be realised.

M Ali E Oderuth I Atchia A Malviya

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a painful condition characterised by pain around the greater trochanter usually affecting middle-aged women. The majority of patients will improve with conservative management such as physiotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, if this fails then more invasive treatments including corticosteroids and surgery may be required. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood product, which has a higher concentration of growth factors postulated to provide enhanced healing and anti-inflammatory properties. The Hip Injections PRP Vs Placebo (HIPPO) trial aims to assess the ability of ultrasound-guided PRP injections to improve symptoms and function in patients with GTPS.

64 patients were enrolled and randomised to either the PRP or placebo (normal saline) treatment arm. Two patients decided to drop out of the trial. Clinical outcomes in both groups were evaluated and compared using the International Hip Outcome Tool-12 (iHOT12), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain, the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and the presence or absence of complications at 3 and six months. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Both groups received physiotherapy after the injections.

The mean age was 57.5. There were 6 males and 56 females with M:F ratio of 1:9.3. Both groups were similar in terms of demography and preoperative scores. The iHOT12 score improved from 28.23 to 45.42 at three-months and decreased slightly to 42.44 at six-months in the Placebo group. The iHOT12 in the PRP group improved from 35.51 to 44.47 at three-months and decreased to 39.78 at six-months. Both groups showed improved VAS and mHHS at three-months compared to the baseline with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p >0.05). The scores decreased at six-months however remained above the baseline. No complications were reported. Gender and age had no effect on outcomes.

Both groups similarly improved from baseline. Physiotherapy can be considered as an important factor in patients' treatment. Further research should be conducted to investigate the role of physiotherapy in the treatment of GTPS.

T Edwards B Keane A Garner K Logishetty A Liddle J Cobb

This study investigates the use of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) score in a hip arthroplasty population and its ability to capture additional benefit beyond the maximum Oxford Hip Score (OHS).

OHS, EuroQol-5D index (EQ-5D), and the MET were prospectively recorded in 221 primary hip arthroplasty procedures pre-operatively and at 1-year. The distribution was examined reporting the presence of ceiling & floor effects. Validity was assessed correlating the MET with the other scores using Spearman's rank and determining responsiveness using the standardised response mean (SRM). A subgroup of 93 patients scoring 48/48 on the OHS were analysed by age group, sex, BMI and pre-operative MET using the other two metrics to determine if differences could be established despite all scoring identically on the OHS.

117 total hip and 104 hip resurfacing arthroplasty operations were included. Mean age was 59.4 ± 11.3. Post-operatively the OHS and EQ-5D demonstrate significant negatively skewed distributions with ceiling effects of 41% and 53%, respectively. The MET was normally distributed post-operatively with no ceiling effect. Weak-moderate but statistically significant correlations were found between the MET and the other two metrics both pre & post-operatively. Responsiveness was excellent, SRM for OHS: 2.01, EQ-5D: 1.06 and MET: 1.17. In the 48/48 scoring subgroup, no differences were found comparing groups with the EQ-5D, however significantly higher MET scores were demonstrated for patients aged <60 (12.7 vs 10.6, p=0.008), male patients (12.5 vs 10.8, p=0.024) and those with pre-operative MET scores >6 (12.6 vs 11.0, p=0.040).

The MET is normally distributed in patients following hip arthroplasty, recording levels of activity which are undetectable using the OHS. As a simple, valid activity metric, it should be considered in addition to conventional PROMs in order to capture the entire benefit experienced following hip arthroplasty.

C Whelton J Barrow R Singhal T Board

Orthopaedic surgical hoods rely on an intrinsic fan to force clean external air over the wearer and allow potentially contaminated and expired air to flow down and away from the surgical field. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced through aerobic metabolism and can potentially accumulate inside the hood. Levels above 2500ppm have been shown to affect cognitive and practical function in flight simulator studies. Maximum Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 8-hour exposure limit is 5000ppm There is a paucity of data on real-world CO2 levels experienced during arthroplasty surgery whilst wearing a hood.

CO2 levels were continuously recorded during 31 elective arthroplasties, both primary and revision. Data was collected for surgeon and assistant. Data was recorded at 0.5Hz throughout the procedure utilising a Bluetooth CO2 detector, worn inside a Stryker Flyte surgical helmet worn with a toga gown. Four surgeons contributed real time data to the study. This data was augmented with experimental data, investigating varying fan speeds and activity levels.

Median operative duration was 82 minutes (range 36–207).

The average CO2 level across all procedures was 2952ppm, with 22 of the cases having a mean above 2500ppm, but none having a mean above 5000ppm.

For each procedure, the time spent above 2500 and 5000 ppm was calculated, with the average being 68.4 % and 5.6% respectively.

The experimental data demonstrated higher CO2 levels with lower fan speed, and at higher activity levels, and levels exceeding 15000 ppm during gentle exercise. During operative cases, low fan speed cases did have a marginally higher mean CO2 value than high fan speed (3033.02 and 2903.56 respectively) but the small numbers of cases (n=10) where this data was captured limit the relevance of this difference.

The use of surgical helmets for elective orthopaedic surgery, can results in CO2 levels regularly rising to a point which may affect cognitive function. This study recommends the use of a higher fan speed where possible to minimise the risk of such CO2 levels, and recommends further research in this area.

W Fishley V Selvaratnam I Carluke P Partington M Reed D Kramer M Wilson M Hubble J Howell A Timperley S Whitehouse AA Kassam T Petheram

Femoral cement-in-cement revision is a well described technique to reduce morbidity and complications in hip revision surgery. Traditional techniques for septic revision necessitate removal of all bone cement from the femur. In our two institutions, we have been using a cement-in-cement technique, leaving the distal femoral cement in selected cases for septic hip revision surgery.

Between February 2010 and September 2019, 89 patients with prosthetic hip infection underwent first or single stage procedures leaving the distal femoral cement in situ and performing a cement-in-cement revision. The mean patient age was 72.0 years (24–92). The median time from the last arthroplasty procedure was 29.0 months (1–294).

81 patients underwent revision using a cemented Exeter stem, 7 patients received an articulating spacer, and one patient underwent excision arthroplasty with the distal cement left in situ. Patients received clinical and radiographic follow-up with a mean of 42.8 months (range 11.0–120.1 months). Oxford hip scores were collected from each institution's existing databases.

9 patients (10.1%) died within one year of surgery. No deaths were directly related to joint infection or the surgery. One patient was lost to follow up before one year.

Of the remainder, 7 patients (8.9%) required further procedures for infection and were therefore considered to be treatment failures. 6 patients (7.6%) underwent planned second stage procedures with no recurrence of infection. 7 patients (8.9%) had further surgery for non-infective reasons. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of infection free survival at one year was 93.7% (95% CI 88.4 to 99.0%).

No patients underwent revision for stem loosening. Oxford hip scores were available at over one year postoperatively for 51 patients with a mean score of 30.6, and a mean gain of 11.9.

In our combined cohort of patients, cement-in-cement revision had an infection eradication rate of 91.1%. Patient selection is crucial, and the procedure can only be performed when there is a well-fixed cement mantle. However, when strict criteria are followed, this technique offers potential significant benefits to surgeons performing this challenging surgery, and more importantly the patients undergoing them.

H Divecha T O'Neill T Board

Cemented acetabular components commonly have a long posterior wall (LPW). Alternative components have a hooded or offset reorientating geometry, theoretically to reduce the risk of THR instability. We aimed to determine if cemented acetabular component geometry influences the risk of revision surgery for instability or loosening.

The National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) dataset was analysed for primary THAs performed between 2003 – 2017. A cohort of 224,874 cemented acetabular components were identified. The effect of acetabular component geometry on the risk of revision for instability or for loosening was investigated using binomial regression adjusting for age, gender, ASA grade, diagnosis, side, institution type, operating surgeon grade, surgical approach, polyethylene crosslinking and head size. A competing risk survival analysis was performed with the competing risks being revision for other indications or death.

Among the cohort of subjects included, the distribution of acetabular component geometries was: LPW – 81.2%, hooded – 18.7% and offset reorientating – 0.1%. There were 3,313 (1.47%) revision THAs performed, of which 815 (0.36%) were for instability and 838 (0.37%) were for loosening. Compared to the LPW group, the adjusted subhazard ratio of revision for instability in the hooded group was 2.29 (p<0.001) and 4.12 (p=0.047) in the offset reorientating group. Likewise, the subhazard ratio of revision for loosening was 2.43 (p<0.001) in the hooded group and 11.47 (p<0.001) in the offset reorientating group. A time-varying subhazard ratio of revision for instability (hooded vs LPW) was found, being greatest within the first 6 months.

This Registry based study confirms a significantly higher risk of revision THA for instability and for loosening when a cemented hooded or offset reorientating acetabular component is used, compared to an LPW component. Further research is required to clarify if certain patients benefit from the use of hooded or offset reorientating components, but we recommend caution when using such components in routine clinical practice.

B Ahmed D George AA El Ashmawy Z Minhas A Palmer A Taylor B Kendrick

Treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can include local delivery of antibiotics. A frequently used medium is absorbable calcium sulphate beads. The aims of this study were to:

identify how often organisms in infected THRs are sensitive to the added antibiotics

establish the incidence of persistent wound discharge and hypercalcaemia

All patients who received an antibiotic loaded calcium sulphate carrier (Stimulan, Biocomposites, Keele, UK) for either confirmed infection, presumed infection or for prophylaxis between July 2015 and July 2020 were included. Stimulan use was at the discretion of the surgeon, and between 10 and 40cc was used. In the absence of a known organism we routinely used 1g vancomycin and 240mg gentamicin per 10 cc of calcium sulphate. Post-operative sensitivities for all organisms cultured were compared to the antibiotics delivered locally. Persistent wound drainage was defined as discharge beyond the third postoperative day. Patients had serum calcium measured if they developed symptoms consistent with hypercalcaemia (Ca >2.6 mmol/L) or the clinical team felt they were at high risk.

189 patients (mean age 66.9 years, mean BMI 28.9, 85 male, 104 female) were included. 11 patients had a native joint septic arthritis, 42 presented with acute PJI and 136 presented with chronic PJI. 133 patients grew an organism, of which 126 were sensitive to the added antibiotics. Of the seven patients with resistant growth five had vancomycin-resistent Enterococcus, one Pseudomonas and one multi-organism growth including coagulase negative Staphylococcus. 40 patients experienced persistent wound discharge, with eight requiring re-operation. All other cases settled with dressing management. 12 patients developed hypercalcaemia (3/64 10cc, 7/117 20cc, 0/2 30cc and 2/6 40cc). The peak calcium reading ranged between the second and twelfth post-operative day.

The addition of vancomycin and gentamicin to absorbable calcium sulphate covers the majority of organisms found in culture positive infection in our cohort. It also appears safe, with an acceptable incidence of hypercalcaemia or wound discharge. Further work is required to identify patients at greatest risk of culturing resistant organisms or delayed wound healing.

M Powell-Bowns E Oag N Ng JT Patton H Pandit M Moran N Clement C Scott

The aim of this study is to determine whether fixation, as opposed to revision arthroplasty, can be safely used to treat reducible Vancouver B type fractures in association with a cemented collarless polished tapered femoral stem (the Exeter).

This is a retrospective cohort study of 152 operatively managed consecutive unilateral Vancouver B fractures involving Exeter stems. 130 were managed with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and 22 with revision arthroplasty. Radiographs were assessed and classified by 3 observers. The primary outcome measure was revision of ≥1 component. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was performed. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for revision following ORIF. Secondary outcomes included any reoperation, complications, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay and mortality.

Fractures (B1 n=74 (49%); B2 n=50 (33%); and B3 n=28 (18%)) occurred at mean 6.7±10.4 years after primary THA (n=143) or hemiarthroplasty (n=15). Mean follow up was 6.5 ±2.6 years (3.2 to 12.1). Rates of revision and reoperation were significantly higher following revision arthroplasty compared to ORIF for B2 (p=0.001) fractures and B3 fractures (p=0.05). Five-year survival was significantly better following ORIF: 92% (86.4 to 97.4 95%CI) Vs 63% (41.7 to 83.3), p<0.001. No independent predictors of revision following ORIF were identified: fixation of B2 or B3 fractures was not associated with an increased risk of revision. Dislocation was the commonest mode of failure after revision arthroplasty. ORIF was associated with reduced blood transfusion requirement and reoperations, but there were no differences in medical complications, hospital stay or mortality between surgical groups.

When the bone-cement interface was intact and the fracture was anatomically reducible, Vancouver B2 fractures around Exeter stems can be treated with fixation as opposed to revision arthroplasty. Fixation of Vancouver B3 fractures can be performed in frail elderly patients without increasing revision risk.

R Holleyman MA Sohatee M Bankes J Witt T Andrade T Board C McBryde J Conroy M Wilson V Khanduja A Malviya

Pelvic re-orientation osteotomy is a well-recognised treatment of young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).

The most commonly used technique is the periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), however, some surgeons favour a triple osteotomy. These techniques can also be utilised for acetabular retroversion leading to FAI.

Despite the published literature on these techniques, the authors note a scarcity of evidence looking at patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for these procedures.

This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data utilising the UK NAHR. All patients who underwent pelvic osteotomy from January 2012 to November 2019 were identified from the NAHR database. Patients who consented to data collection received EQ-5D index and iHOT-12 questionnaires, with scores being collected pre-operatively and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-operatively.

Nine hundred and eleven (911) patients were identified with twenty-seven (27) undergoing a triple osteotomy, the remaining patients underwent PAO. Mean age was 30.6 (15–56) years and 90% of patients were female. Seventy-nine (79) (8.7%) of patients had the procedure for acetabular retroversion leading to FAI

Statistical analysis, of all patients, showed significant improvement (p<0.001) for; iHOT-12 scores (+28 at 6-months, +33.8 at 12-months and +29.9 at 24-months)

Similarly there was significant improvement (p<0.001) in EQ-5D index (+0.172 at 6-months, +0.187 at 12-months and +0.166 at 24-months)

Pre-operatively, and at each follow-up time-period, raw scores were significantly better in the DDH group compared to the FAI group (p<0.05); however, the improvement in scores was similar for both groups.

For both scoring measures, univariable and multivariable linear regression showed poorer pre-operative scores to be strongly significant predictors of greater post-operative improvement at 6 and 12 months (p<0.0001).


This study shows that pelvic osteotomy is a successful treatment for DDH and FAI, with the majority of patients achieving significant improvement in outcome scores which are maintained up to 24 months post-operatively. The patients with FAI have significantly reduced raw scores preoperatively and, perhaps, are functionally more limited.

A Ramavath J Leong P Siney P Kay H Divecha T Board

Principles of bone preservation and restoration of biomechanical alignment should be followed during revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). Where possible, conservative femoral revision techniques and even reconstructive de-escalation involving using primary stems should be considered. This study aims to investigate the outcome of patients who have undergone conservative femoral revision THA in our Institution.

We retrospectively identified patients from our Institution's revision arthroplasty database who had cemented, or un-cemented primary stems implanted during revision THA of a previous stemmed femoral implant. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause re-revision THA with a secondary outcome measure of improvement in Oxford hip score (OHS). Radiographic evidence of stem loosening and post-op complications were recorded.

Between 02/12/2014 to 12/12/2019, there were 226 patients identified with a mean follow up of 2 years (1–5 years). The majority of cases were represented by Paprosky type 1 (63%) and type 2 (25%) femoral defects. There were 45 patients (20%) who underwent impaction bone grafting (IBG) and 43 patients (19%) who had a cement in cement (CinC) femoral revision and cemented primary stem in 137 (60%), 1 uncemented stem with no IBG or CinC revision. Kaplan Meier survival for all-cause re-revision THA was 93.7% (95% CI: 88.3 – 100) at 3 years. The reasons for re-revision included 4 periprosthetic fractures, 4 dislocations, 1 deep infection, 1 loosening of femoral component and 1 loosening of acetabular component. Pre- and post-operative OHS scores were available in 137 hips (60%) with a mean improvement of 13. Radiographic review revealed 7% of cases with evidence of loosening in 1 or more Gruen zones.

Our early results support the use of conservative femoral revision THA techniques where appropriate, with low complication and re-revision rates. Revisions using primary femoral components, where appropriate, should be considered in surgical planning to avoid unnecessary reconstructive escalation.

ET Davis K McKinney A Kamali J Pagkalos

Computer aided Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) surgery is known to improve implantation precision, but clinical trials have failed to demonstrate an improvement in survivorship or patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). Our aim was to compare the risk of revision, PROMs and satisfaction rates between computer guided and THA implanted without computer guidance.

We used the National Joint Registry dataset and linked PROMs data. Our sample included THAs implanted for osteoarthritis using cementless acetabular components from a single manufacturer (cementless and hybrid). An additional analysis was performed limiting the sample size to THAs using cementless stems (fully cementless). The primary endpoint was revision (of any component) for any reason. Kaplan Meier survivorship analysis and an adjusted Cox Proportional Hazards model were used.

41683 non computer guided, and 871 (2%) computer guided cases were included in our cementless and hybrid analysis. 943 revisions were recorded in the non-guided and 7 in the computer guided group (adjusted Log-rank test, p= 0.028). Cumulative revision rate at 10 years was 3.88% (95%CI: 3.59 – 4.18) and 1.06% (95%CI: 0.45 – 2.76) respectively. Cox Proportional Hazards adjusted HR: 0.45 (95%CI: 0.21 – 0.96, p=0.038). In the fully cementless group, cumulative revision rate at 10 years was 3.99% (95%CI: 3.62 – 4.38) and 1.20% (95%CI: 0.52 – 3.12) respectively. Cox Proportional Hazards adjusted HR: 0.47 (95%CI: 0.22 – 1.01, p=0.053). There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month Oxford Hip Score, EQ-5D, EQ-VAS and success rates. Patient Satisfaction (single-item satisfaction outcome measure) was improved in the computer guided group but this finding was limited by a reduced number of responses.

In this single manufacturer acetabular component analysis, the use of computer guided surgery was associated with a significant reduction in the early risk of revision. Causality cannot be inferred in view of the observational nature of the study, and further database and prospective studies are recommended to validate these findings.

T Holland S Capella M Lee V Sumathi E Davis

The use of routine sampling for histological analysis during revision hip replacement has been standard practice in our unit for many years. It is used to identify the presence of inflammatory processes that may represent peri-prosthetic infection.

This study follows up on a smaller study in the same unit in 2019 where an initial 152 cases were scrutinised. In this follow up study we examined 1,361 consecutive patients over a 16-year period whom had undergone revision hip replacement in a tertiary orthopaedic centre for any reason excluding primary bone tumour or malignant metastasis. All patients had tissue sampling for histopathological analysis performed by consultant histopathologists with a specialist interest in musculoskeletal pathology. The presence of bacteria in greater than 50% of samples sent for microbiological analysis in each patient was used as the gold standard diagnostic comparator for infection. This was then compared with the histology report for each patient.

After excluding 219 patients with incomplete data and 1 sample rejection, 1,141 cases were examined. Microbiology confirmed infection in 132 cases (prevalence of infection 11.04%) and histopathology analysis suggested infection in 171 cases. Only 64 cases with confirmed infection in more than 50% of microbiology samples had concurrent diagnosis of infection on histological analysis (5.60% of total; PPV 51.20%). Furthermore, microbiology analysis confirmed infection in 62 cases where histological analysis failed to identify infection (5.43% of total; False negative rate 49.21%). Overall, histopathology analysis was seen to have a good specificity of 93.99% but poor sensitivity of 50.79%.

We believe that this is the largest series in the literature and is somewhat unique in that all histology analysis was performed by consultant histopathologists with specialist interest in musculoskeletal pathology. Based on the costs incurred by this additional investigation our experience does not support routine sampling for histological analysis in revision hip arthroplasty. This is a substantial paradigm shift from current practice among revision arthroplasty surgeons in the United Kingdom but would equate to a substantial cost saving.

A Falsetto E Sanders J Weishorn H Gill N McGoldrick P Beaulé M Innmann C Merle G Grammatopoulos

This matched cohort study aims to (a) assess differences in spinopelvic characteristics of patients having sustained a dislocation following THA and a control THA group without dislocation; (b) identify spinopelvic characteristics associated with risk of dislocation and; (c) propose an algorithm to define the optimum cup orientation for minimizing dislocation risk.

Fifty patients with a history of THA dislocation (29 posterior-, 21 anterior dislocations) were matched for age, gender, body mass index, index diagnosis, and femoral head size with 100 controls. All patients were reviewed and underwent detailed quasi-static radiographic evaluations of the coronal- (offset; center-of-rotation; cup inclination/anteversion) and sagittal- reconstructions (pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, pelvic-femoral-angle, cup ante-inclination). The spinopelvic balance (PI-LL), combined sagittal index (CSI= Pelvic-femoral-angle + Cup Anteinclination) and Hip-User-Index were determined. sagittal index (CSI= Pelvic-femoral-angle + Cup Anteinclination) and Hip-User-Index were determined. Parameters were compared between the two groups (2-group analysis) and between controls and per direction of dislocation (3-group analysis).

There were marginal coronal differences between the groups. Sagittal parameters (lumbar-lordosis, pelvic-tilt, CSI, PI-LL and Hip-User-Index) differed significantly. PI-LL (>10°) and standing pelvic tilt (>18°) were the strongest predictors of dislocation risk (sensistivity:70%/specificity:70%). All hips with a standing CSI<195° dislocated posteriorly and all with CSI>260° dislocated anteriorly. A CSI between 200–245° was associated with significantly reduced risk of dislocation (OR:6; 95%CI:2.5–15.0; p<0.001). In patients with unbalanced and/or rigid lumbar spine, standing CSI of 215–245° was associated with significantly reduced dislocation risk (OR:10; 95%CI:3.2–29.8; p<0.001).

PI-LL and standing pelvic-tilt determined from pre-operative, standing, lateral spinopelvic radiograph can be useful screening tools, alerting surgeons of patients at increased dislocation risk. Measurement of the pelvic-femoral angle pre-operatively provides valuable information to determine the optimum, cup orientation associated with reduced dislocation risk by aiming for a standing CSI of 200–245°.

H Divecha T O'Neill T Board

The protective effect of lipped polyethylene uncemented acetabular liners against revision THA for instability has been reported. However, the effect of lip size has not been explored, nor has the effect on revision THA for loosening. We aimed to determine if uncemented acetabular liner geometry, and lip size, influences the risk of revision THA for instability or loosening.

202511 primary THAs with uncemented polyethylene acetabular components were identified from the NJR dataset (2003 – 2017). The effect of acetabular liner geometry and lip size on the risk of revision THA for instability or loosening was investigated using binomial regression and competing risks survival analyses (competing risks were revision for other causes or death) adjusting for age, gender, ASA grade, diagnosis, side, institution type, surgeon grade, surgical approach, head size and polyethylene crosslinking.

The distribution of acetabular liners was: neutral – 39.4%, offset neutral – 0.9%, 10-degree – 34.5%, 15-degree – 21.6%, 20-degree – 0.8%, offset reorientating – 2.82%. There were 690 (0.34%) revision THAs for instability and 604 (0.3%) for loosening. Significant subhazard risk ratios were found in revision THA for instability with 10-degree (0.63), 15-degree (0.48) and offset reorientating (1.6) liners, compared to neutral liners. There was no association found between liner geometry and risk of revision THA for loosening.

This Registry based study confirms a significantly lower risk of revision THA for instability when a lipped liner is used, compared to neutral liners, and a higher risk with the use of offset reorientating liners. Furthermore, 15degree liners seem to have a lower risk than 10degree liners. We did not find an association between acetabular liner geometry and revision THA for loosening.

10- and 15-degree lipped polyethylene liners seem to offer a lower revision risk over neutral liners, at least at medium term followup. Further studies are required to confirm if this benefit continues into the long-term.

A Rajan J Leong R Singhal P Siney N Shah T Board

Trabecular metal (TM) augments are designed to support an uncemented socket in revision surgery when adequate rim fit is not possible. We have used TM augments in an alternative arrangement, to contain segmental defects to facilitate impaction bone grafting (IBG) and cementation of a cemented socket. However, there is a paucity of literature supporting the use of this technique. We present one of the largest studies to date, reporting early outcomes of patients from a tertiary centre.

A single-centre retrospective analytical study of prospectively collected data was performed on patients who had undergone complex acetabular reconstruction using TM augments, IBG and a cemented cup. All patients operated between 2015 and 2019 were included. We identified 105 patients with a mean age of 74yrs. The mean follow-up was 2.3 years(1–5.5yrs). Our primary outcome measure was all-cause revision of the construct. The secondary outcome measures were, Oxford hip score (OHS), radiographic evidence of cup migration/loosening and post-op complications.

Eighty-four out of 105 patients belonged to Paprosky grade IIb, IIc or IIIa. Kaplan-Meier survivorship for all-cause revision was 96.36% (CI, 90.58–100.00) at 2 years with 3 failures. Two were due to early infection which required two-stage re-revision. The third was due to post-operative acetabular fracture which was then re-revised with TM augment, bone graft and large uncemented cup. Pre-op and post-op matched OHS scores were available for 60 hips(57%) with a mean improvement of 13 points. Radiographic analysis showed graft incorporation in all cases with no evidence of cup loosening. The mean vertical cup migration was 0.5mm (Range −5 to 7mm). No other complications were recorded.

This study shows that reconstruction of large acetabular defects during revision THA using a combination of TM augments to contain the acetabulum along with IBG to preserve the bone stock and a cemented socket is a reliable and safe technique with low revision rates and satisfactory clinical and radiographic results. Long term studies are needed to assess the possibility of preservation and regeneration of bone stock.

R Holleyman G Stamp T Board M Bankes V Khanduja A Malviya

Chondral hip injuries are common secondary to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Treatment with arthroscopic procedures including chondroplasty and microfracture is becoming increasingly common but literature is limited to case series at specialist centres. The aim of this study is to compare outcomes of arthroscopic acetabular chondral procedures using the NAHR dataset (UK) which represents the largest series to date.

All adult Arthroscopies recorded in the NAHR from Jan 2012 were available for inclusion. Exclusions included significant arthritis and femoral, complex or revision chondral procedures. Patients completed iHOT-12 & EQ-5D Index pre-operatively, 6 and 12 months. Data was analysed using T-test/ANOVA for between group/within group for continuous variables, chi square test for categorical variables and linear regression model for multivariable analysis.

5,752 patients, 60% female. 27% Chondroplasty, 5% Microfracture, 68% no Chondral Procedure. Maximum acetabular Outerbridge classification 14% Grade 1, 15% Grade 2, 17% Grade 3, 8% Grade 4, 9% no damage, not recorded in 37%. Higher proportion of Cam impingement in association with chondral treatments and a larger proportion of patients with no impingement recorded in group with no chondral procedures. There was a significant improvement versus baseline for all groups in iHOT-12 and EQ-5D Index (p<0.0001) including Grade four Outerbridge. There was significantly greater improvement in pre-operative scores in the chondroplasty group compared to the microfracture group at 6 and 12 months (p<0.05).

Following hip arthroscopy, patients with chondral procedures experienced improved outcome scores despite Outerbridge 4 chondral damage. Presence of cam lesions are more commonly associated with chondral treatments. Good outcomes were maintained up to 12 months for chondral procedures, regardless of age or impingement pathology however pincers improved less and patients over 40 years took longer to see improvement.

J Pagkalos B Kopjar E Davis

Our previous work presented at BHS revealed a reduced risk of revision for all reasons in THAs using lipped (asymmetric) liners. Some audience members felt that this finding may be due to unaccounted confounders and the hip surgery community remains sceptical.

A fully adjusted Cox model was built after exploratory Kaplan-Meier analyses. The following surgical approaches were included in the analysis: Posterior, Hardinge/anterolateral, Other. The variables included in the final Cox model included: Gender, liner asymmetry, age, head composition, stem fixation method, head diameter, indication for implantation and surgical approach. An additional analysis of the 3 most commonly used polyethylene liners with both a flat and asymmetric version was performed.

In the fully adjusted Cox model, the use of a flat liner was associated with increased risk of revision for instability (HR: 1.79, 95%CI: 1.52–2.10) and increased risk of revision for all reasons (HR 1.195, 95%CI: 1.104 – 1.293) when compared to THAs utilising flat liners. This finding was upheld in the product specific analysis.

When utilising flat liners, the Hardinge/anterolateral approach was associated with a reduced risk of revision for instability compared to the posterior approach (HR 0.56, 95%CI: 0.446 to 0.706). When an asymmetric liner was used, there was no significant difference in the risk of revision for instability between the Hardinge/anterolateral approach and the posterior approach (HR 0.838, 95%CI: 0.633 – 1.110).

The use of polyethylene-based bearings gives the surgeon the option to use asymmetric liners. The reduced risk of revision in THAs with asymmetric liners was seen in the analysis of the complete dataset and in the product specific analysis. Our results demonstrate that the posterior approach, when used with asymmetric XLPE liners, is not associated with a higher risk of revision for instability as historical data suggested.

M Wyatt C Frampton M Whitehouse K Deere A Sayers D Kieser

The aim of this study was to compare the relative performance of total hip replacement constructs and discern if there is substantial variability in performance in currently commonly used prostheses.

All patients who underwent a primary total hip replacement (THR) registered in the NZJR between 1st January 1999 to June 2020 were identified. Using a noninferiority analysis, the performance of hip prostheses were compared with the best performing contemporary construct. Construct failure was estimated using the 1-Kaplan Meier survival function method to estimate net failure. The difference in failure between the contemporary benchmark and other constructs was examined.

In total 135 432 THR were recorded comprising 1 035 different THR constructs. Notably 328 constructs were used just once. 48 constructs (62 251 THR) had >500 procedures at risk at 3 years post-primary of which 28 were inferior by at least 20% relative risk of which, 10 were inferior by at least 100% relative risk. 16 constructs were identified with >500 procedures at risk at 10 years with 9 inferior by at least 20%, of which one was inferior by >100% relative risk. There were fewer constructs noninferior to the best practice benchmark when we performed analysis by gender. In females at 10 years, from 5 constructs with >500 constructs at risk, 2 were inferior at the 20% margin. In males at 10 years, there were only 2 eligible constructs of which one was inferior at the 20% margin.

We discerned that there is substantial variability in construct performance and at most time points, just over half of constructs are inferior to the best performing construct by at least 20%. These results can facilitate informed decision-making when considering THR surgery.