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Volume 5, Issue 2 February 2024

Ryuichi Sato Hidetoshi Hamada Keisuke Uemura Kazuma Takashima Wataru Ando Masaki Takao Mitsuru Saito Nobuhiko Sugano

Aims

This study aimed to investigate the incidence of ≥ 5 mm asymmetry in lower and whole leg lengths (LLs) in patients with unilateral osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH-OA) and primary hip osteoarthritis (PHOA), and the relationship between lower and whole LL asymmetries and femoral length asymmetry.

Methods

In total, 116 patients who underwent unilateral total hip arthroplasty were included in this study. Of these, 93 had DDH-OA and 23 had PHOA. Patients with DDH-OA were categorized into three groups: Crowe grade I, II/III, and IV. Anatomical femoral length, femoral length greater trochanter (GT), femoral length lesser trochanter (LT), tibial length, foot height, lower LL, and whole LL were evaluated using preoperative CT data of the whole leg in the supine position. Asymmetry was evaluated in the Crowe I, II/III, IV, and PHOA groups.


Olof Wolf Tatevik Ghukasyan Lakic Johan Ljungdahl Jonas Sundkvist Michael Möller Cecilia Rogmark Sebastian Mukka Nils P. Hailer

Aims

Our primary aim was to assess reoperation-free survival at one year after the index injury in patients aged ≥ 75 years treated with internal fixation (IF) or arthroplasty for undisplaced femoral neck fractures (uFNFs). Secondary outcomes were reoperations and mortality analyzed separately.

Methods

We retrieved data on all patients aged ≥ 75 years with an uFNF registered in the Swedish Fracture Register from 2011 to 2018. The database was linked to the Swedish Arthroplasty Register and the National Patient Register to obtain information on comorbidity, mortality, and reoperations. Our primary outcome, reoperation, or death at one year was analyzed using restricted mean survival time, which gives the mean time to either event for each group separately.


Fabio Mancino Babar Kayani Ayman Gabr Andreas Fontalis Ricci Plastow Fares S. Haddad

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common and debilitating knee injuries in professional athletes with an incidence in females up to eight-times higher than their male counterparts. ACL injuries can be career-threatening and are associated with increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in future life. The increased risk of ACL injury in females has been attributed to various anatomical, developmental, neuromuscular, and hormonal factors. Anatomical and hormonal factors have been identified and investigated as significant contributors including osseous anatomy, ligament laxity, and hamstring muscular recruitment. Postural stability and impact absorption are associated with the stabilizing effort and stress on the ACL during sport activity, increasing the risk of noncontact pivot injury. Female patients have smaller diameter hamstring autografts than males, which may predispose to increased risk of re-rupture following ACL reconstruction and to an increased risk of chondral and meniscal injuries. The addition of an extra-articular tenodesis can reduce the risk of failure; therefore, it should routinely be considered in young elite athletes. Prevention programs target key aspects of training including plyometrics, strengthening, balance, endurance and stability, and neuromuscular training, reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes by up to 90%. Sex disparities in access to training facilities may also play an important role in the risk of ACL injuries between males and females. Similarly, football boots, pitches quality, and football size and weight should be considered and tailored around females’ characteristics. Finally, high levels of personal and sport-related stress have been shown to increase the risk of ACL injury which may be related to alterations in attention and coordination, together with increased muscular tension, and compromise the return to sport after ACL injury. Further investigations are still necessary to better understand and address the risk factors involved in ACL injuries in female athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2024;5(2):94–100.


Seong J. Jang Kyle N. Kunze Jack C. Casey Jack R. Steele David J. Mayman Seth A. Jerabek Peter K. Sculco Jonathan M. Vigdorchik

Aims

Distal femoral resection in conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilizes an intramedullary guide to determine coronal alignment, commonly planned for 5° of valgus. However, a standard 5° resection angle may contribute to malalignment in patients with variability in the femoral anatomical and mechanical axis angle. The purpose of the study was to leverage deep learning (DL) to measure the femoral mechanical-anatomical axis angle (FMAA) in a heterogeneous cohort.

Methods

Patients with full-limb radiographs from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were included. A DL workflow was created to measure the FMAA and validated against human measurements. To reflect potential intramedullary guide placement during manual TKA, two different FMAAs were calculated either using a line approximating the entire diaphyseal shaft, and a line connecting the apex of the femoral intercondylar sulcus to the centre of the diaphysis. The proportion of FMAAs outside a range of 5.0° (SD 2.0°) was calculated for both definitions, and FMAA was compared using univariate analyses across sex, BMI, knee alignment, and femur length.


Luke E. Corban Victor A. van de Graaf Darren B. Chen Jil A. Wood Ashish D. Diwan Samuel J. MacDessi

Aims

While mechanical alignment (MA) is the traditional technique in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), its potential for altering constitutional alignment remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify unintentional changes to constitutional coronal alignment and joint line obliquity (JLO) resulting from MA.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of 700 primary MA TKAs (643 patients) performed between 2014 and 2017. Lateral distal femoral and medial proximal tibial angles were measured pre- and postoperatively to calculate the arithmetic hip-knee-ankle angle (aHKA), JLO, and Coronal Plane Alignment of the Knee (CPAK) phenotypes. The primary outcome was the magnitude and direction of aHKA, JLO, and CPAK alterations.


Abhishek Chaturvedi Heather Russell Matthew Farrugia Mark Roger Amit Putti Paul J. Jenkins Stephen Feltbower

Aims

Occult (clinical) injuries represent 15% of all scaphoid fractures, posing significant challenges to the clinician. MRI has been suggested as the gold standard for diagnosis, but remains expensive, time-consuming, and is in high demand. Conventional management with immobilization and serial radiography typically results in multiple follow-up attendances to clinic, radiation exposure, and delays return to work. Suboptimal management can result in significant disability and, frequently, litigation.

Methods

We present a service evaluation report following the introduction of a quality-improvement themed, streamlined, clinical scaphoid pathway. Patients are offered a removable wrist splint with verbal and written instructions to remove it two weeks following injury, for self-assessment. The persistence of pain is the patient’s guide to ‘opt-in’ and to self-refer for a follow-up appointment with a senior emergency physician. On confirmation of ongoing signs of clinical scaphoid injury, an urgent outpatient ‘fast’-wrist protocol MRI scan is ordered, with instructions to maintain wrist immobilization. Patients with positive scan results are referred for specialist orthopaedic assessment via a virtual fracture clinic.


Bin Chen Andrew D. Duckworth Luke Farrow You J. Xu Nick D. Clement

Aims

This study aimed to determine whether lateral femoral wall thickness (LWT) < 20.5 mm was associated with increased revision risk of intertrochanteric fracture (ITF) of the hip following sliding hip screw (SHS) fixation when the medial calcar was intact. Additionally, the study assessed the association between LWT and patient mortality.

Methods

This retrospective study included ITF patients aged 50 years and over treated with SHS fixation between 2019 and 2021 at a major trauma centre. Demographic information, fracture type, delirium status, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, and length of stay were collected. LWT and tip apex distance were measured. Revision surgery and mortality were recorded at a mean follow-up of 19.5 months (1.6 to 48). Cox regression was performed to evaluate independent risk factors associated with revision surgery and mortality.


Caroline E. Plant Alexander Ooms Jonathan A. Cook Matthew L. Costa

Aims

The primary aim of this study was to report the radiological outcomes of patients with a dorsally displaced distal radius fracture who were randomized to a moulded cast or surgical fixation with wires following manipulation and closed reduction of their fracture. The secondary aim was to correlate radiological outcomes with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the year following injury.

Methods

Participants were recruited as part of DRAFFT2, a UK multicentre clinical trial. Participants were aged 16 years or over with a dorsally displaced distal radius fracture, and were eligible for the trial if they needed a manipulation of their fracture, as recommended by their treating surgeon. Participants were randomly allocated on a 1:1 ratio to moulded cast or Kirschner wires after manipulation of the fracture in the operating theatre. Standard posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were performed in the radiology department of participating centres at the time of the patient’s initial assessment in the emergency department and six weeks postoperatively. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images taken at the time of fracture reduction were also assessed.


Benjamin M. Wright Michael S. Bodnar Andrew D. Moore Meghan C. Maseda Michael P. Kucharik Connor C. Diaz Christian M. Schmidt Hassan R. Mir

Aims

While internet search engines have been the primary information source for patients’ questions, artificial intelligence large language models like ChatGPT are trending towards becoming the new primary source. The purpose of this study was to determine if ChatGPT can answer patient questions about total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) with consistent accuracy, comprehensiveness, and easy readability.

Methods

We posed the 20 most Google-searched questions about THA and TKA, plus ten additional postoperative questions, to ChatGPT. Each question was asked twice to evaluate for consistency in quality. Following each response, we responded with, “Please explain so it is easier to understand,” to evaluate ChatGPT’s ability to reduce response reading grade level, measured as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). Five resident physicians rated the 120 responses on 1 to 5 accuracy and comprehensiveness scales. Additionally, they answered a “yes” or “no” question regarding acceptability. Mean scores were calculated for each question, and responses were deemed acceptable if ≥ four raters answered “yes.”


Sunit Hazra Nabarun Saha Sunny K. Mallick Amit Saraf Sanjay Kumar Sandip Ghosh Mainak Chandra

Aims

Posterior column plating through the single anterior approach reduces the morbidity in acetabular fractures that require stabilization of both the columns. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of posterior column plating through the anterior intrapelvic approach (AIP) in the management of acetabular fractures.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the data from R G Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India, from June 2018 to April 2023. Overall, there were 34 acetabulum fractures involving both columns managed by medial buttress plating of posterior column. The posterior column of the acetabular fracture was fixed through the AIP approach with buttress plate on medial surface of posterior column. Mean follow-up was 25 months (13 to 58). Accuracy of reduction and effectiveness of this technique were measured by assessing the Merle d’Aubigné score and Matta’s radiological grading at one year and at latest follow-up.