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Volume 97-B, Issue 5 May 2015

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O. Rolfson H. Malchau

The limitations and benefits of patient-reported outcome measures, in defining the merits of arthroplasty surgery, are discussed.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:578–81.

General Orthopaedics
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S. A. Brennan C. Ní Fhoghlú B. M. Devitt F. J. O’Mahony D. Brabazon A. Walsh

Implant-associated infection is a major source of morbidity in orthopaedic surgery. There has been extensive research into the development of materials that prevent biofilm formation, and hence, reduce the risk of infection. Silver nanoparticle technology is receiving much interest in the field of orthopaedics for its antimicrobial properties, and the results of studies to date are encouraging. Antimicrobial effects have been seen when silver nanoparticles are used in trauma implants, tumour prostheses, bone cement, and also when combined with hydroxyapatite coatings. Although there are promising results with in vitro and in vivo studies, the number of clinical studies remains small. Future studies will be required to explore further the possible side effects associated with silver nanoparticles, to ensure their use in an effective and biocompatible manner. Here we present a review of the current literature relating to the production of nanosilver for medical use, and its orthopaedic applications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:582–9.

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N. A. Smith M. L. Costa T. Spalding

The anatomy and microstructure of the menisci allow the effective distribution of load across the knee. Meniscectomy alters the biomechanical environment and is a potent risk factor for osteoarthritis. Despite a trend towards meniscus-preserving surgery, many tears are irreparable, and many repairs fail.

Meniscal allograft transplantation has principally been carried out for pain in patients who have had a meniscectomy. Numerous case series have reported a significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes after surgery, but randomised controlled trials have not been undertaken.

It is scientifically plausible that meniscal allograft transplantation is protective of cartilage, but this has not been established clinically to date.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:590–4.

R. W. McCalden A. Korczak L. Somerville X. Yuan D. D. Naudie

This was a randomised controlled trial studying the safety of a new short metaphyseal fixation (SMF) stem. We hypothesised that it would have similar early clinical results and micromovement to those of a standard-length tapered Synergy metaphyseal fixation stem. Using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) we compared the two stems in 43 patients. A short metaphyseal fixation stem was used in 22 patients and a Synergy stem in 21 patients. No difference was found in the clinical outcomes pre- or post-operatively between groups. RSA showed no significant differences two years post-operatively in mean micromovement between the two stems (except for varus/valgus tilt at p = 0.05) (subsidence 0.94 mm (sd 1.71) vs 0.32 mm (sd 0.45), p = 0.66; rotation 0.96° (sd 1.49) vs 1.41° (sd 2.95), p = 0.88; and total migration 1.09 mm (sd 1.74) vs 0.73 mm (sd 0.72), p = 0.51). A few stems (four SMF and three Synergy) had initial migration > 1.0 mm but stabilised by three to six months, with the exception of one SMF stem which required revision three years post-operatively. For most stems, total micromovement was very low at two years (subsidence < 0.5 mm, rotation < 1.0°, total migration < 0.5 mm), which was consistent with osseous ingrowth. The small sample makes it difficult to confirm the universal applicability of or elucidate the potential contraindications to the use of this particular new design of stem.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:595–602.

G. Meermans I. Goetheer-Smits R. F. Lim W. J. Van Doorn J. Kats

A high radiographic inclination angle (RI) contributes to accelerated wear and has been associated with dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). With freehand positioning of the acetabular component there is a lack of accuracy, with a trend towards a high radiographic inclination angle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a digital protractor to measure the operative inclination angle (OI) could improve the positioning of the acetabular component in relation to a ‘safe zone’.

We measured the radiographic inclination angles of 200 consecutive uncemented primary THAs. In the first 100 the component was introduced freehand and in the second 100 a digital protractor was used to measure the operative inclination angle.

The mean difference between the operative and the radiographic inclination angles (∆RI–OI) in the second cohort was 12.3° (3.8° to 19.8°). There was a strong correlation between the circumference of the hip and ∆RI–OI. The number of RI outliers was significantly reduced in the protractor group (p = 0.002).

Adjusting the OI, using a digital protractor and taking into account the circumference of the patient’s hip, improves the RI significantly (p < 0.001) and does not require additional operating time.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:603–610.

W. C. Shin S. M. Lee K. W. Lee H. J. Cho J. S. Lee K. T. Suh

There is no single standardised method of measuring the orientation of the acetabular component on plain radiographs after total hip arthroplasty. We assessed the reliability and accuracy of three methods of assessing anteversion of the acetabular component for 551 THAs using the PolyWare software and the methods of Liaw et al, and of Woo and Morrey. All measurements of the three methods had excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability. The values of the PolyWare software, which determines version of the acetabular component by edge detection were regarded as the reference standard. Although the PolyWare software and the method of Liaw et al were similarly precise, the method of Woo and Morrey was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001). The method of Liaw et al seemed to be more accurate than that of Woo and Morrey when compared with the measurements using the PolyWare software. If the qualified lateral radiograph was selected, anteversion measured using the method of Woo and Morrey was considered to be relatively reliable.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:611–16.

F. S. Haddad S. Konan J. Tahmassebi

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ten-year clinical and functional outcome of hip resurfacing and to compare it with that of cementless hip arthroplasty in patients under the age of 55 years.

Between 1999 and 2002, 80 patients were enrolled into the study: 24 were randomised (11 to hip resurfacing, 13 to total hip arthroplasty), 18 refused hip resurfacing and chose cementless total hip arthroplasty with a 32 mm bearing, and 38 insisted on resurfacing. The mean follow-up for all patients was 12.1 years (10 to 14).

Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically at one year, five years and ten years. Outcome measures included EuroQol EQ5D, Oxford, Harris hip, University of California Los Angeles and University College Hospital functional scores.

No differences were seen between the two groups in the Oxford or Harris hip scores or in the quality of life scores. Despite a similar aspiration to activity pre-operatively, a higher proportion of patients with a hip resurfacing were running and involved in sport and heavy manual labour after ten years.

We found significantly higher function scores in patients who had undergone hip resurfacing than in those with a cementless hip arthroplasty at ten years. This suggests a functional advantage for hip resurfacing. There were no other attendant problems.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:617–22.

A. J. J. Lee P. Armour D. Thind M. H. Coates A. C. L. Kang

Acetabular labral tears and associated intra-articular pathology of the hip have been recognised as a source of symptoms. However, it is now appreciated that there is a relatively high prevalence of asymptomatic labral tears. In this study, 70 young asymptomatic adult volunteers with a mean age of 26 years (19 to 41) were recruited and underwent three tesla non-arthrographic MR scans. There were 47 women (67.1%) and 23 men (32.9%).

Labral tears were found in 27 volunteers (38.6%); these were an isolated finding in 16 (22.9%) and were associated with other intra-articular pathology in the remaining 11 (15.7%) volunteers. Furthermore, five (7.1%) had intra-articular pathology without an associated labral tear.

Given the high prevalence of labral pathology in the asymptomatic population, it is important to confirm that a patient's symptoms are due to the demonstrated abnormalities when considering surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:623–7.

A. Fontana L. de Girolamo

The repair of chondral lesions associated with femoroacetabular impingement requires specific treatment in addition to that of the impingement. In this single-centre retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients we compared treatment with microfracture (MFx) with a technique of enhanced microfracture autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC).

Acetabular grade III and IV chondral lesions measuring between 2 cm2 and 8 cm2 in 147 patients were treated by MFx in 77 and AMIC in 70. The outcome was assessed using the modified Harris hip score at six months and one, two, three, four and five years post-operatively. The outcome in both groups was significantly improved at six months and one year post-operatively. During the subsequent four years the outcome in the MFx group slowly deteriorated, whereas that in the AMIC group remained stable. Six patients in the MFx group subsequently required total hip arthroplasty, compared with none in the AMIC group

We conclude that the short-term clinical outcome improves in patients with acetabular chondral damage following both MFx and AMIC. However, the AMIC group had better and more durable improvement, particularly in patients with large (≥ 4 cm2) lesions.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:628–35.

M. Kalhor J. Gharehdaghi R. Schoeniger R. Ganz

The modified Smith–Petersen and Kocher–Langenbeck approaches were used to expose the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh and the femoral, obturator and sciatic nerves in order to study the risk of injury to these structures during the dissection, osteotomy, and acetabular reorientation stages of a Bernese peri-acetabular osteotomy.

Injury of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh was less likely to occur if an osteotomy of the anterior superior iliac spine had been carried out before exposing the hip.

The obturator nerve was likely to be injured during unprotected osteotomy of the pubis if the far cortex was penetrated by > 5 mm. This could be avoided by inclining the osteotome 45° medially and performing the osteotomy at least 2 cm medial to the iliopectineal eminence.

The sciatic nerve could be injured during the first and last stages of the osteotomy if the osteotome perforated the lateral cortex of ischium and the ilio-ischial junction by > 10 mm.

The femoral nerve could be stretched or entrapped during osteotomy of the pubis if there was significant rotational or linear displacement of the acetabulum. Anterior or medial displacement of < 2 cm and lateral tilt (retroversion) of < 30° were safe margins. The combination of retroversion and anterior displacement could increase tension on the nerve.

Strict observation of anatomical details, proper handling of the osteotomes and careful manipulation of the acetabular fragment reduce the neurological complications of Bernese peri-acetabular osteotomy.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:636–41.

N. C. Hunt K. M. Ghosh A. P. Blain S. P. Rushton L. M. Longstaff D. J. Deehan

The aim of this study was to compare the maximum laxity conferred by the cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilised (PS) Triathlon single-radius total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for anterior drawer, varus–valgus opening and rotation in eight cadaver knees through a defined arc of flexion (0º to 110º). The null hypothesis was that the limits of laxity of CR- and PS-TKAs are not significantly different.

The investigation was undertaken in eight loaded cadaver knees undergoing subjective stress testing using a measurement rig. Firstly the native knee was tested prior to preparation for CR-TKA and subsequently for PS-TKA implantation. Surgical navigation was used to track maximal displacements/rotations at 0º, 30º, 60º, 90º and 110° of flexion. Mixed-effects modelling was used to define the behaviour of the TKAs.

The laxity measured for the CR- and PS-TKAs revealed no statistically significant differences over the studied flexion arc for the two versions of TKA. Compared with the native knee both TKAs exhibited slightly increased anterior drawer and decreased varus-valgus and internal-external roational laxities. We believe further study is required to define the clinical states for which the additional constraint offered by a PS-TKA implant may be beneficial.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:642–8.

N. Hawi D. Kendoff M. Citak T. Gehrke C. Haasper

Knee arthrodesis is a potential salvage procedure for limb preservation after failure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to infection. In this study, we evaluated the outcome of single-stage knee arthrodesis using an intramedullary cemented coupled nail without bone-on-bone fusion after failed and infected TKA with extensor mechanism deficiency. Between 2002 and 2012, 27 patients (ten female, 17 male; mean age 68.8 years; 52 to 87) were treated with septic single-stage exchange. Mean follow-up duration was 67.1months (24 to 143, n = 27) (minimum follow-up 24 months) and for patients with a minimum follow-up of five years 104.9 (65 to 143,; n = 13). A subjective patient evaluation (Short Form (SF)-36) was obtained, in addition to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The mean VAS score was 1.44 (SD 1.48). At final follow-up, four patients had recurrent infections after arthrodesis (14.8%). Of these, three patients were treated with a one-stage arthrodesis nail exchange; one of the three patients had an aseptic loosening with a third single-stage exchange, and one patient underwent knee amputation for uncontrolled sepsis at 108 months. All patients, including the amputee, indicated that they would choose arthrodesis again. Data indicate that a single-stage knee arthrodesis offers an acceptable salvage procedure after failed and infected TKA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:649–53.

E. Jämsen M. Peltola T. Puolakka A. Eskelinen M. U. K. Lehto

We compared the length of hospitalisation, rate of infection, dislocation of the hip and revision, and mortality following primary hip and knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n = 1064) and a matched control group (n = 3192). The data were collected from nationwide Finnish health registers. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had a longer peri-operative hospitalisation (median 13 days vs eight days, p < 0.001) and an increased risk for hip revision with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 3.00). Dislocation was the leading indication for revision. There was no difference in the rates of infection, dislocation of the hip, knee revision and short-term mortality. In long-term follow-up, patients with Alzheimer’s disease had a higher mortality (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.70), and only one third survived ten years post-operatively. Increased age and comorbidity were associated with longer peri-operative hospitalisation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:654–61.

S. B. Mani H. Do E. Vulcano M. V. Hogan S. Lyman J. T. Deland S. J. Ellis

The foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS) has been evaluated for many conditions of the foot and ankle. We evaluated its construct validity in 136 patients with osteoarthritis of the ankle, its content validity in 37 patients and its responsiveness in 39. Data were collected prospectively from the registry of patients at our institution.

All FAOS subscales were rated relevant by patients. The Pain, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality of Life subscales showed good correlation with the Physical Component score of the Short-Form-12v2. All subscales except Symptoms were responsive to change after surgery.

We concluded that the FAOS is a weak instrument for evaluating osteoarthritis of the ankle. However, some of the FAOS subscales have relative strengths that allow for its limited use while we continue to seek other satisfactory outcome instruments.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:662–7.

J. Röhm L. Zwicky T. Horn Lang Y. Salentiny B. Hintermann M. Knupp

Talonavicular and subtalar joint fusion through a medial incision (modified triple arthrodesis) has become an increasingly popular technique for treating symptomatic flatfoot deformity caused by posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

The purpose of this study was to look at its clinical and radiological mid- to long-term outcomes, including the rates of recurrent flatfoot deformity, nonunion and avascular necrosis of the dome of the talus.

A total of 84 patients (96 feet) with a symptomatic rigid flatfoot deformity caused by posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were treated using a modified triple arthrodesis. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (35 to 85) and the mean follow-up was 4.7 years (1 to 8.3). Both clinical and radiological outcomes were analysed retrospectively.

In 86 of the 95 feet (90.5%) for which radiographs were available, there was no loss of correction at final follow-up. In all, 14 feet (14.7%) needed secondary surgery, six for nonunion, two for avascular necrosis, five for progression of the flatfoot deformity and tibiotalar arthritis and one because of symptomatic overcorrection. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hindfoot score (AOFAS score) at final follow-up was 67 (between 16 and 100) and the mean visual analogue score for pain 2.4 points (between 0 and 10).

In conclusion, modified triple arthrodesis provides reliable correction of deformity and a good clinical outcome at mid- to long-term follow-up, with nonunion as the most frequent complication. Avascular necrosis of the talus is a rare but serious complication of this technique.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:668–74.

E. Domeij-Arverud F. Labruto A. Latifi G. Nilsson G. Edman P. W. Ackermann

Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of immobilising the lower limb after surgery. We hypothesised that intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) therapy in outpatients who had undergone surgical repair of acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon could reduce the incidence of this problem.

A total of 150 patients who had undergone surgical repair of the Achilles tendon were randomised to either treatment with IPC for six hours per day (n = 74) under an orthosis or treatment as usual (n = 74) in a plaster cast without IPC. At two weeks post-operatively, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was assessed using blinded, double-reported compression duplex ultrasound. At this point, IPC was discontinued and all patients were immobilised in an orthosis for a further four weeks. At six weeks post-operatively, a second compression duplex ultrasound scan was performed.

At two weeks, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 21% in the treated group and 37% in the control group (p = 0.042). Age over 39 years was found to be a strong risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio (OR) = 4.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14 to 10.96). Treatment with IPC, corrected for age differences between groups, reduced the risk of deep vein thrombosis at the two-week point (OR = 2.60; 95% CI 1.15 to 5.91; p =0.022). At six weeks, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 52% in the treated group and 48% in the control group (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.83). IPC appears to be an effective method of reducing the risk of deep vein thrombosis in the early stages of post-operative immobilisation of outpatients. Further research is necessary to elucidate whether it can confer similar benefits over longer periods of immobilisation and in a more heterogeneous group of patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:675–80.

Shoulder & Elbow
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M. L. Wagener M. J. de Vos G. Hannink M. van der Pluijm N. Verdonschot D. Eygendaal

Unlinked, linked and convertible total elbow arthroplasties (TEAs) are currently available. This study is the first to report the clinical results of the convertible Latitude TEA. This was a retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of 63 patients (69 primary TEAs) with a mean age of 60 years (23 to 87). Between 2006 and 2008 a total of 19 men and 50 women underwent surgery. The mean follow-up was 43 months (8 to 84). The range of movement, function and pain all improved six months post-operatively and either continued to improve slightly or reached a plateau thereafter. The complication rate is similar to that reported for other TEA systems. No loosening was seen. Remarkable is the disengagement of the radial head component in 13 TEAs (31%) with a radial head component implanted.

Implantation of both the linked and the unlinked versions of the Latitude TEA results in improvement of function and decreased pain, and shows high patient satisfaction at mid-term follow-up.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:681–8.

B. A. Basques D. D. Bohl N. S. Golinvaux A. M. Samuel J. G. Grauer

The aim of this study was to compare the operating time, length of stay (LOS), adverse events and rate of re-admission for elderly patients with a fracture of the hip treated using either general or spinal anaesthesia. Patients aged ≥ 70 years who underwent surgery for a fracture of the hip between 2010 and 2012 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. Of the 9842 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 7253 (73.7%) were treated with general anaesthesia and 2589 (26.3%) with spinal anaesthesia. On propensity-adjusted multivariate analysis, general anaesthesia was associated with slightly increased operating time (+5 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) +4 to +6, p < 0.001) and post-operative time in the operating room (+5 minutes, 95% CI +2 to +8, p < 0.001) compared with spinal anaesthesia. General anaesthesia was associated with a shorter LOS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34, p < 0.001). Any adverse event (odds ratio (OR) 1.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.32, p < 0.001), thromboembolic events (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.89, p = 0.003), any minor adverse event (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.32, p < 0.001), and blood transfusion (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.49, p < 0.001) were associated with general anaesthesia. General anaesthesia was associated with decreased rates of urinary tract infection (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.87, p < 0.001). There was no clear overall advantage of one type of anaesthesia over the other, and surgeons should be aware of the specific risks and benefits associated with each type.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:689–95.

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M. Kenawey C. Krettek A. Addosooki W. Salama E. Liodakis

Unstable pelvic injuries in young children with an immature pelvis have different modes of failure from those in adolescents and adults. We describe the pathoanatomy of unstable pelvic injuries in these children, and the incidence of associated avulsion of the iliac apophysis and fracture of the ipsilateral fifth lumbar transverse process (L5-TP). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 33 children with Tile types B and C pelvic injuries admitted between 2007 and 2014; their mean age was 12.6 years (2 to 18) and 12 had an immature pelvis. Those with an immature pelvis commonly sustained symphyseal injuries anteriorly with diastasis, rather than the fractures of the pubic rami seen in adolescents. Posteriorly, transsacral fractures were more commonly encountered in mature children, whereas sacroiliac dislocations and fracture-dislocations were seen in both age groups. Avulsion of the iliac apophysis was identified in eight children, all of whom had an immature pelvis with an intact ipsilateral L5-TP. Young children with an immature pelvis are more susceptible to pubic symphysis and sacroiliac diastasis, whereas bony failures are more common in adolescents. Unstable pelvic injuries in young children are commonly associated with avulsion of the iliac apophysis, particularly with displaced SI joint dislocation and an intact ipsilateral L5-TP.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:696–704.

A. Ozmeric M. Yucens E. Gultaç H. I. Açar N. H. Aydogan D. Gül K. B. Alemdaroglu

We hypothesised that the anterior and posterior walls of the body of the first sacral vertebra could be visualised with two different angles of inlet view, owing to the conical shape of the sacrum. Six dry male cadavers with complete pelvic rings and eight dry sacrums with K-wires were used to study the effect of canting (angling the C-arm) the fluoroscope towards the head in 5° increments from 10° to 55°. Fluoroscopic images were taken in each position. Anterior and posterior angles of inclination were measured between the upper sacrum and the vertical line on the lateral view. Three authors separately selected the clearest image for overlapping anterior cortices and the upper sacral canal in the cadaveric models. The dry bone and K-wire models were scored by the authors, being sure to check whether the K-wire was in or out.

In the dry bone models the mean score of the relevant inlet position of the anterior or posterior inclination was 8.875 (standard deviation (sd) 0.35), compared with the inlet position of the opposite inclination of –5.75 (sd 4.59). We found that two different inlet views should be used separately to evaluate the borders of the body of the sacrum using anterior and posterior inclination angles of the sacrum, during placement of iliosacral screws.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:705–10.

C. Xie N. Whalley K. Adasonla R. Grimer L. Jeys

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with a sacral chordoma and the surgical management of locally recurrent disease.

Between October 1990 and August 2013 we operated on 54 consecutive patients with a sacral chordoma. There were 34 men and 20 women with a mean age of 60 years (25 to 86). The mean maximum diameter of the tumour was 9.3 cm (3 to 20).

The mean follow-up was 7.8 years (2 months to 23.4 years). The disease-specific survival was 82% at five years, 57% at ten years and 45% at 15 years. The local recurrence-free survival was 49% at five years, 37% at ten years and 20% at 15 years. Local recurrence occurred in 30 patients (56%) at a mean of 3.8 years (3 months to 13 years) post-operatively.

Survival after the treatment of recurrence was 89% at two years, 56% at five years and 19% at ten years. Of nine patients who had complete resection of a recurrence, one died after 72 months and eight remain disease-free. Incomplete resection of recurrent disease resulted in a survival of 54% at two years and 36% at five years.

For 12 patients with a local recurrence who were treated palliatively, survival was 81% at two years and 31% at five years.

A wide margin of resection gave the best chance of long-term survival and complete resection of local recurrence the best chance of control of disease.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:711–15.

Children's Orthopaedics
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M. M. Orak T. Onay S. A. Gümüştaş T. Gürsoy H. H. Muratlí

The aim of this prospective study was to investigate prematurity as a risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The hips of 221 infants (88 female, 133 male, mean age 31.11 weeks; standard deviation (sd) 2.51) who were born in the 34th week of gestation or earlier, and those of 246 infants (118 female, 128 male, mean age 40.22 weeks; sd 0.36) who were born in the 40th week of gestation, none of whom had risk factors for DDH, were compared using physical examination and ultrasound according to the technique of Graf, within one week, after the correction of gestational age to the 40th week after birth or one week since birth, respectively. Both hips of all infants were included in the study. Ortolani’s and Barlow’s tests and restricted abduction were accepted as positive findings on examination. There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and full-term infants, according to the incidence of mature and immature hips (p < 0.001). The difference in the proportion of infants with an α angle < 60° between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The incidence of pathological dysplasia (α angle < 50 º) was not significantly different in the two groups (p = 1.000). The Barlow sign was present in two (0.5%) pre-term infants and in 14 (2.8%) full-term infants.

These results suggests that prematurity is not a predisposing factor for DDH.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:716–20