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Volume 97-B, Issue 1 January 2015

From needle to knife Pages 1 - 2
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F. S. Haddad A. W. McCaskie
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Trauma and Orthopaedic care has been through a rapid evolution over the past few decades. This Editorial discusses some of the advances.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1–2.

F. S. Hossain S. Konan S. Patel E. C. Rodriguez-Merchan F. S. Haddad
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The routine use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in evaluating the outcome after arthroplasty by healthcare organisations reflects a growing recognition of the importance of patients’ perspectives in improving treatment. Although widely embraced in the NHS, there are concerns that PROMs are being used beyond their means due to a poor understanding of their limitations.

This paper reviews some of the current challenges in using PROMs to evaluate total knee arthroplasty. It highlights alternative methods that have been used to improve the assessment of outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:3–9.

S. A. Sabah J. Henckel E. Cook R. Whittaker H. Hothi Y. Pappas G. Blunn J. A. Skinner A. J. Hart
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Arthroplasty registries are important for the surveillance of joint replacements and the evaluation of outcome. Independent validation of registry data ensures high quality. The ability for orthopaedic implant retrieval centres to validate registry data is not known. We analysed data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) for primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties performed between 2003 and 2013. Records were linked to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (RC) for validation. A total of 67 045 procedures on the NJR and 782 revised pairs of components from the RC were included. We were able to link 476 procedures (60.9%) recorded with the RC to the NJR successfully. However, 306 procedures (39.1%) could not be linked. The outcome recorded by the NJR (as either revised, unrevised or death) for a primary procedure was incorrect in 79 linked cases (16.6%). The rate of registry-retrieval linkage and correct assignment of outcome code improved over time. The rates of error for component reference numbers on the NJR were as follows: femoral head category number 14/229 (5.0%); femoral head batch number 13/232 (5.3%); acetabular component category number 2/293 (0.7%) and acetabular component batch number 24/347 (6.5%).

Registry-retrieval linkage provided a novel means for the validation of data, particularly for component fields. This study suggests that NJR reports may underestimate rates of revision for many types of metal-on-metal hip replacement. This is topical given the increasing scope for NJR data. We recommend a system for continuous independent evaluation of the quality and validity of NJR data.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:10–18.

Y. M. den Hartog N. M. C. Mathijssen G. Hannink S. B. W. Vehmeijer
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After implementation of a ‘fast-track’ rehabilitation protocol in our hospital, mean length of hospital stay for primary total hip arthroplasty decreased from 4.6 to 2.9 nights for unselected patients. However, despite this reduction there was still a wide range across the patients’ hospital duration. The purpose of this study was to identify which specific patient characteristics influence length of stay after successful implementation of a ‘fast-track’ rehabilitation protocol. A total of 477 patients (317 female and 160 male, mean age 71.0 years; 39.3 to 92.6, mean BMI 27.0 kg/m2;18.8 to 45.2) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2013, were included in this retrospective cohort study. A length of stay greater than the median was considered as an increased duration. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors associated with increased durations. Median length of stay was two nights (interquartile range 1), and the mean length of stay 2.9 nights (1 to 75). In all, 266 patients had a length of stay ≤ two nights. Age (odds ratio (OR) 2.46; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.72 to 3.51; p <  0.001), living situation (alone vs living together with cohabitants, OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.33 to 3.30; p = 0.002) and approach (anterior approach vs lateral, OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46; p <  0.001) (posterolateral approach vs lateral, OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.55; p < 0.001) were factors that were significantly associated with increased length of stay in the multivariable logistic regression model.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:19–23.

A. Malviya W. Dandachli Z. Beech M. J. Bankes J. D. Witt
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Stress fractures occurring in the pubis and ischium after peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) are not well recognised, with a reported incidence of 2% to 3%. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence of stress fracture after Bernese PAO under the care of two high-volume surgeons. The study included 359 patients (48 men, 311 women) operated on at a mean age of 31.1 years (15 to 56), with a mean follow-up of 26 months (6 to 64). Complete follow-up radiographs were available for 348 patients, 64 of whom (18.4%) developed a stress fracture of the inferior pubic ramus, which was noted at a mean of 9.1 weeks (5 to 55) after surgery. Most (58; 91%) healed. In 40 of the patients with a stress fracture (62.5%), pubic nonunion also occurred. Those with a stress fracture were significantly older (mean 33.9 years (16 to 50) vs 30.5 years (15 to 56), p = 0.002) and had significantly more mean pre-operative deformity: mean centre–edge angle (9.8° (-9.5 to 35) vs 12.4° (-33 to 28), p = 0.04) and mean Tönnis angle (22.8° (0 to 45) vs 18.7° (-2 to 38), p < 0.001). The pubic nonunion rate was significantly higher in those with a stress fracture (62.5% vs 7%, p < 0.001), with regression analysis revealing that these patients had 11.8 times higher risk than those without nonunion.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:24–8.

E. N. Novais G. D. Potter J. C. Clohisy M. B. Millis Y. J. Kim R. T. Trousdale P. M. Carry R. J. Sierra
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Obesity is a risk factor for complications following many orthopaedic procedures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether obesity was an independent risk factor increasing the rate of complications following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and to determine whether radiographic correction after PAO was affected by obesity.

We retrospectively collected demographic, clinical and radiographic data on 280 patients (231 women; 82.5% and 49 men; 17.5%) who were followed for a mean of 48 months (12 to 60) after PAO. A total of 65 patients (23.2%) were obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2). Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that BMI was an independent risk factor associated with the severity of the complications. The average probability of a patient developing a major complication was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.78 to 38.21) for an obese patient compared with 3% (95% CI 1.39 to 6.58) for a non-obese patient The odds of a patient developing a major complication were 11 times higher (95% CI 4.71 to 17.60, p <  0.0001) for an obese compared with a non-obese patient.

Following PAO surgery, there was no difference in radiographic correction between obese and non-obese patients. PAO procedures in obese patients correct the deformity effectively but are associated with an increased rate of complications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:29–34.

G. Flivik I. Kristiansson L. Ryd
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We hypothesised that the removal of the subchondral bone plate (SCBP) for cemented acetabular component fixation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) offers advantages over retention by improving the cement-bone interface, without jeopardising implant stability. We have previously published two-year follow-up data of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), in which 50 patients with primary osteoarthritis were randomised to either retention or removal of the SCBP. The mean age of the retention group (n = 25, 13 males) was 70.0 years (sd 6.8). The mean age in the removal group (n = 25, 16 males) was 70.3 years (sd 7.9). Now we have followed up the patients at six (retention group, n = 21; removal group, n = 20) and ten years (retention group: n = 17, removal group: n = 18), administering clinical outcome questionnaires and radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and determining the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) on conventional radiographs. RSA demonstrated similar translation and rotation patterns up to six years. Between six and ten years, proximal acetabular component migration and changes of inclination were larger in the retention group, although the mean differences did not reach statistical significance. Differences in migration were driven by two patients in the SCBP retention group with extensive migration versus none in the SCBP removal group. The significant difference (p < 0.001) in the development of radiolucent lines in the retention group, previously observed at two years, increased even further during the course of follow-up (p < 0.001). While recognising SCBP removal is a more demanding technique, we conclude that, wherever possible, the SCBP should be removed to improve the cement–bone interface in order to maximise acetabular component stability and longevity.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:35–44.

A. T. Tokarski T. A. Novack J. Parvizi
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We hypothesised that the use of tantalum (Ta) acetabular components in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) was protective against subsequent failure due to infection. We identified 966 patients (421 men, 545 women and 990 hips) who had undergone revision THA between 2000 and 2013. The mean follow up was 40.2 months (3 months to 13.1 years). The mean age of the men and women was 62.3 years (31 to 90) and 65.1 years (25 to 92), respectively.

Titanium (Ti) acetabular components were used in 536 hips while Ta components were used in 454 hips. In total, 73 (7.3%) hips experienced subsequent acetabular failure. The incidence of failure was lower in the Ta group at 4.4% (20/454) compared with 9.9% (53/536) in the Ti group (p < 0.001, odds ratio 2.38; 95% CI 1.37 to 4.27). Among the 144 hips (64 Ta, 80 Ti) for which revision had been performed because of infection, failure due to a subsequent infection was lower in the Ta group at 3.1% (2/64) compared with 17.5% (14/80) for the Ti group (p = 0.006).

Thus, the use of Ta acetabular components during revision THA was associated with a lower incidence of failure from all causes and Ta components were associated with a lower incidence of subsequent infection when used in patients with periprosthetic joint infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:45–9.

H. A. Zuiderbaan S. Khamaisy R. Thein D. H. Nawabi A. D. Pearle
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Progressive degenerative changes in the medial compartment of the knee following lateral unicompartmental arthroplasty (UKA) remains a leading indication for revision surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the congruence and joint space width (JSW) of the medial compartment following lateral UKA. The congruence of the medial compartment of 53 knees (24 men, 23 women, mean age 13.1 years; sd 62.1) following lateral UKA was evaluated pre-operatively and six weeks post-operatively, and compared with 41 normal knees (26 men, 15 women, mean age 33.7 years; sd 6.4), using an Interactive closest point algorithm which calculated the congruence index (CI) by performing a rigid transformation that best aligns the digitised tibial and femoral surfaces. Inner, middle and outer JSWs were measured by sub-dividing the medial compartment into four quarters on pre- and post-operative, weight bearing tunnel view radiographs. The mean CI of knees following lateral UKA significantly improved from 0.92 (sd 0.06) pre-operatively to 0.96 (sd 0.02) (p < 0.001) six weeks post-operatively. The mean CI of the healthy control group was 0.99 sd 0.01. Post-operatively, the mean inner JSW increased (p = 0.006) and the outer decreased (p = 0.002). The JSW was restored post-operatively as no significant differences were noted in all three locations compared with the control group (inner JSW p = 0.43; middle JSW p = 0.019, outer JSW p = 0.51).

Our data suggest that a well conducted lateral UKA may improve the congruence and normalise the JSW of the medial compartment, potentially preventing progression of degenerative change.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:50–5.

L. Abane P. Anract S. Boisgard S. Descamps J. P. Courpied M. Hamadouche
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In this study we randomised 140 patients who were due to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to have the procedure performed using either patient-specific cutting guides (PSCG) or conventional instrumentation (CI).

The primary outcome measure was the mechanical axis, as measured at three months on a standing long-leg radiograph by the hip–knee–ankle (HKA) angle. This was undertaken by an independent observer who was blinded to the instrumentation. Secondary outcome measures were component positioning, operating time, Knee Society and Oxford knee scores, blood loss and length of hospital stay.

A total of 126 patients (67 in the CI group and 59 in the PSCG group) had complete clinical and radiological data. There were 88 females and 52 males with a mean age of 69.3 years (47 to 84) and a mean BMI of 28.6 kg/m2 (20.2 to 40.8). The mean HKA angle was 178.9° (172.5 to 183.4) in the CI group and 178.2° (172.4 to 183.4) in the PSCG group (p = 0.34). Outliers were identified in 22 of 67 knees (32.8%) in the CI group and 19 of 59 knees (32.2%) in the PSCG group (p = 0.99). There was no significant difference in the clinical results (p = 0.95 and 0.59, respectively). Operating time, blood loss and length of hospital stay were not significantly reduced (p = 0.09, 0.58 and 0.50, respectively) when using PSCG.

The use of PSCG in primary TKA did not reduce the proportion of outliers as measured by post-operative coronal alignment.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:56–63.

D. F. Hamilton R. Burnett J. T. Patton C. R. Howie M. Moran A. H. R. W. Simpson P. Gaston
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Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an established and successful procedure. However, the design of prostheses continues to be modified in an attempt to optimise the functional outcome of the patient.

The aim of this study was to determine if patient outcome after TKA was influenced by the design of the prosthesis used.

A total of 212 patients (mean age 69; 43 to 92; 131 female (62%), 81 male (32%)) were enrolled in a single centre double-blind trial and randomised to receive either a Kinemax (group 1) or a Triathlon (group 2) TKA.

Patients were assessed pre-operatively, at six weeks, six months, one year and three years after surgery. The outcome assessments used were the Oxford Knee Score; range of movement; pain numerical rating scales; lower limb power output; timed functional assessment battery and a satisfaction survey. Data were assessed incorporating change over all assessment time points, using repeated measures analysis of variance longitudinal mixed models. Implant group 2 showed a significantly greater range of movement (p = 0.009), greater lower limb power output (p = 0.026) and reduced report of ‘worst daily pain’ (p = 0.003) over the three years of follow-up. Differences in Oxford Knee Score (p = 0.09), report of ‘average daily pain’ (p = 0.57) and timed functional performance tasks (p = 0.23) did not reach statistical significance. Satisfaction with outcome was significantly better in group 2 (p = 0.001).

These results suggest that patient outcome after TKA can be influenced by the prosthesis used.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:64–70.

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S. Hoell L. Borgers G. Gosheger R. Dieckmann D. Schulz J. Gerss J. Hardes
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) could be used to identify the persistence of infection after the first stage of a two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infection.

Between 2010 and 2011, we prospectively studied 55 patients (23 men, 32 women; mean age 69.5 years; 36 to 86) with a periprosthetic joint infection. Bacteria were identified in two intra-operative tissue samples during re-implantation in 16 patients. These cases were classified as representing persistent infection.

To calculate a precise cut-off value which could be used in everyday clinical practice, a 3 x 2 contingency table was constructed and manually defined.

We found that a serum IL-6 ≥ 13 pg/mL can be regarded as indicating infection: its positive-predictive value is 90.9%. A serum IL-6 ≤ 8 pg/mL can be regarded as indicating an absence of infection: its negative predictive value is 92.1%.

The serum IL-6 level seems to be a reasonable marker for identifying persistent infection after the first stage of a revision joint arthroplasty and before attempting re-implantation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:71–5.

M. Siebachmeyer K. Boddu A. Bilal T. W. Hester T. Hardwick T. P. Fox M. Edmonds V. Kavarthapu
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We report the outcomes of 20 patients (12 men, 8 women, 21 feet) with Charcot neuro-arthropathy who underwent correction of deformities of the ankle and hindfoot using retrograde intramedullary nail arthrodesis. The mean age of the patients was 62.6 years (46 to 83); their mean BMI was 32.7 (15 to 47) and their median American Society of Anaesthetists score was 3 (2 to 4). All presented with severe deformities and 15 had chronic ulceration. All were treated with reconstructive surgery and seven underwent simultaneous midfoot fusion using a bolt, locking plate or a combination of both. At a mean follow-up of 26 months (8 to 54), limb salvage was achieved in all patients and 12 patients (80%) with ulceration achieved healing and all but one patient regained independent mobilisation. There was failure of fixation with a broken nail requiring revision surgery in one patient. Migration of distal locking screws occurred only when standard screws had been used but not with hydroxyapatite-coated screws. The mean American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle (AAOS-FAO) score improved from 50.7 (17 to 88) to 65.2 (22 to 88), (p = 0.015). The mean Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey Physical Component Score improved from 25.2 (16.4 to 42.8) to 29.8 (17.7 to 44.2), (p = 0.003) and the mean Euroqol EQ‑5D‑5L score improved from 0.63 (0.51 to 0.78) to 0.67 (0.57 to 0.84), (p = 0.012).

Single-stage correction of deformity using an intramedullary hindfoot arthrodesis nail is a good form of treatment for patients with severe Charcot hindfoot deformity, ulceration and instability provided a multidisciplinary care plan is delivered.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:76–82.

G. Kocsis T. A. McCulloch D. Thyagarajan W. A. Wallace
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The LockDown device (previously called Surgilig) is a braided polyester mesh which is mostly used to reconstruct the dislocated acromioclavicular joint. More than 11 000 have been implanted worldwide. Little is known about the tissue reaction to the device nor to its wear products when implanted in an extra-articular site in humans. This is of importance as an adverse immunological reaction could result in osteolysis or damage to the local tissues, thereby affecting the longevity of the implant.

We analysed the histology of five LockDown implants retrieved from five patients over the last seven years by one of the senior authors. Routine analysis was carried out in all five cases and immunohistochemistry in one.

The LockDown device acts as a scaffold for connective tissue which forms an investing fibrous pseudoligament. The immunological response at the histological level seems favourable with a limited histiocytic and giant cell response to micron-sized wear particles. The connective tissue envelope around the implant is less organised than a native ligament.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:83–8.

G. S. Maier J. B. Seeger K. Horas K. E. Roth A. A. Kurth U. Maus
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Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a common risk factor for fragility fractures and poor fracture healing. Epidemiological data on vitamin D deficiency have been gathered in various populations, but the association between vertebral fragility fractures and hypovitaminosis D, especially in males, remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) in patients presenting with vertebral fragility fractures and to determine whether patients with a vertebral fracture were at greater risk of hypovitaminosis D than a control population. Furthermore, we studied the seasonal variations in the serum vitamin D levels of tested patients in order to clarify the relationship between other known risk factors for osteoporosis and vitamin D levels. We measured the serum 25-OH D levels of 246 patients admitted with vertebral fractures (105 men, 141 female, mean age 69 years, sd 8.5), and in 392 orthopaedic patients with back pain and no fractures (219 men, 173 female, mean age 63 years, sd 11) to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Statistical analysis found a significant difference in vitamin D levels between patients with vertebral fragility fracture and the control group (p = 0.036). In addition, there was a significant main effect of the tested variables: obesity (p < 0.001), nicotine abuse (p = 0.002) and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). No statistical difference was found between vitamin D levels and gender (p = 0.34). Vitamin D insufficiency was shown to be a risk factor for vertebral fragility fractures in both men and women.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:89–93.

G. Grammatopoulos H. A. Wilson B. J. L. Kendrick E. C. Pulford J. Lippett M. Deakin A. J. Andrade G. Kambouroglou
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National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines state that cemented stems with an Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating of > 3B should be used for hemiarthroplasty when treating an intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck. These recommendations are based on studies in which most, if not all stems, did not hold such a rating.

This case-control study compared the outcome of hemiarthroplasty using a cemented (Exeter) or uncemented (Corail) femoral stem. These are the two prostheses most commonly used in hip arthroplasty in the UK.

Data were obtained from two centres; most patients had undergone hemiarthroplasty using a cemented Exeter stem (n = 292/412). Patients were matched for all factors that have been shown to influence mortality after an intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur. Outcome measures included: complications, re-operations and mortality rates at two, seven, 30 and 365 days post-operatively. Comparable outcomes for the two stems were seen.

There were more intra-operative complications in the uncemented group (13% vs 0%), but the cemented group had a greater mortality in the early post-operative period (n = 6). There was no overall difference in the rate of re-operation (5%) or death (365 days: 26%) between the two groups at any time post-operatively.

This study therefore supports the use of both cemented and uncemented stems of proven design, with an ODEP rating of 10A, in patients with an intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:94–9.

P. R. P. Rushton M. R. Reed R. K. Pratt
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The Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) was developed to assess the risk of death following a fracture of the hip, based on pre-operative patient characteristics. We performed an independent validation of the NHFS, assessed the degree of geographical variation that exists between different units within the United Kingdom and attempted to define a NHFS level that is associated with high risk of mortality.

The NHFS was calculated retrospectively for consecutive patients presenting with a fracture of the hip to two hospitals in England. The observed 30-day mortality for each NHFS cohort was compared with that predicted by the NHFS using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test. The distribution of NHFS in the observed group was compared with data from other hospitals in the United Kingdom. The proportion of patients identified as high risk and the mortality within the high risk group were assessed for groups defined using different thresholds for the NHFS.

In all 1079 hip fractures were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 83 years (60 to 105), 284 (26%) male. Overall 30-day mortality was 7.3%. The NHFS was a significant predictor of 30-day mortality. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of the NHFS were present between different units in England (p < 0.001). A NHFS ≥ 6 appears to be an appropriate cut-point to identify patients at high risk of mortality following a fracture of the hip.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;96-B:100–3.

C. P. Bretherton M. J. Parker
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There has been extensive discussion about the effect of delay to surgery on mortality in patients sustaining a fracture of the hip. Despite the low level of evidence provided by many studies, a consensus has been accepted that delay of > 48 hours is detrimental to survival. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine if early surgery confers a survival benefit at 30 days.

Between 1989 and 2013, data were prospectively collected on patients sustaining a fracture of the hip at Peterborough City Hospital. They were divided into groups according to the time interval between admission and surgery. These thresholds ranged from <  6 hours to between 49 and 72 hours. The outcome which was assessed was the 30-day mortality. Adjustment for confounders was performed using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. In all, 6638 patients aged > 60 years were included.

Worsening American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade (p < 0.001), increased age (p <  0.001) and extracapsular fracture (p < 0.019) increased the risk of 30-day mortality.

Increasing mobility score (p = 0.014), mini mental test score (p < 0.001) and female gender (p = 0.014) improved survival. After adjusting for these confounders, surgery before 12 hours improved survival compared with surgery after 12 hours (p = 0.013). Beyond this the increasing delay to surgery did not significantly affect the 30-day mortality.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:104–8.

J. M. Haller D. C. Holt M. L. McFadden T. F. Higgins E. N. Kubiak
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The aim of this study was to report the incidence of arthrofibrosis of the knee and identify risk factors for its development following a fracture of the tibial plateau. We carried out a retrospective review of 186 patients (114 male, 72 female) with a fracture of the tibial plateau who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Their mean age was 46.4 years (19 to 83) and the mean follow-up was16.0 months (6 to 80).

A total of 27 patients (14.5%) developed arthrofibrosis requiring a further intervention. Using multivariate regression analysis, the use of a provisional external fixator (odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 17.7, p = 0.021) was significantly associated with the development of arthrofibrosis. Similarly, the use of a continuous passive movement (CPM) machine was associated with significantly less development of arthrofibrosis (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.83, p = 0.024). The effect of time in an external fixator was found to be significant, with each extra day of external fixation increasing the odds of requiring manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) or quadricepsplasty by 10% (OR = 1.10, p = 0.030). High-energy fracture, surgical approach, infection and use of tobacco were not associated with the development of arthrofibrosis. Patients with a successful MUA had significantly less time to MUA (mean 2.9 months; sd 1.25) than those with an unsuccessful MUA (mean 4.86 months; sd 2.61, p = 0.014). For those with limited movement, therefore, performing an MUA within three months of the injury may result in a better range of movement.

Based our results, CPM following operative fixation for a fracture of the tibial plateau may reduce the risk of the development of arthrofibrosis, particularly in patients who also undergo prolonged provisional external fixation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:109–14.

K. I. A Reddy H. Wafa C. L. Gaston R. J. Grimer A. T. Abudu L. M. Jeys S. R. Carter R. M. Tillman
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A poor response to chemotherapy (≤ 90% necrosis) for osteosarcomas leads to poorer survival and an increased risk of local recurrence, particularly if there is a close margin of excision. We evaluated whether amputation confers any survival benefit over limb salvage surgery (LSS) with narrow margins in patients who respond poorly to chemotherapy.

We only analysed patients with an osteosarcoma of the limb, a poor response to chemotherapy and close margins on LSS (marginal/intralesional) or primary amputation: 360 patients (36 LSS (intralesional margins), 197 LSS (marginal margins) and 127 amputations) were included. Local recurrence developed in 13 (36%) following LSS with intralesional margins, and 39 (20%) following LSS with marginal margins. There was no local recurrence in patients who underwent amputation. The five-year survival for all patients was 41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35 to 46), but for those treated by LSS with marginal margins was 46.2% (95% CI 38 to 53), 36.3% (95% CI 27 to 45) for those treated by amputation, and 28% (95 CI 14 to 44) for those treated by LSS with intralesional margins. Patients who had LSS and then developed local recurrence as a first event had the same survival as those who had primary amputation without local recurrence. Prophylactic adjuvant radiotherapy was used in 40 patients but had no discernible effect in preventing local recurrence.

Although amputation offered better local control, it conferred no clear survival benefit over LSS with marginal margins in these patients with a poor overall prognosis.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:115–20.

S. Kang I. Han S. H. Hong H. S. Cho W. Kim H-S. Kim
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Cancellous allograft bone chips are commonly used in the reconstruction of defects in bone after removal of benign tumours. We investigated the MRI features of grafted bone chips and their change over time, and compared them with those with recurrent tumour. We retrospectively reviewed 66 post-operative MRIs from 34 patients who had undergone curettage and grafting with cancellous bone chips to fill the defect after excision of a tumour. All grafts showed consistent features at least six months after grafting: homogeneous intermediate or low signal intensities with or without scattered hyperintense foci (speckled hyperintensities) on T1 images; high signal intensities with scattered hypointense foci (speckled hypointensities) on T2 images, and peripheral rim enhancement with or without central heterogeneous enhancements on enhanced images. Incorporation of the graft occurred from the periphery to the centre, and was completed within three years. Recurrent lesions consistently showed the same signal intensities as those of pre-operative MRIs of the primary lesions. There were four misdiagnoses, three of which were chondroid tumours.

We identified typical MRI features and clarified the incorporation process of grafted cancellous allograft bone chips. The most important characteristics of recurrent tumours were that they showed the same signal intensities as the primary tumours. It might sometimes be difficult to differentiate grafted cancellous allograft bone chips from a recurrent chondroid tumour.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:121–8.

K. R. Niedzielski K. Malecki P. Flont J. Fabis
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In 11 paediatric patients (seven girls and four boys, from 12 to 15 years old) with unilateral obligatory patellar dislocation and ligamentous laxity vastus medialis advancement, lateral release, partial patellar ligament transposition and Galeazzi semitendinosus tenodesis was undertaken to stabilise the patella. The diagnostic criterion for ligamentous laxity was based on the Beighton scale. Outcomes were evaluated radiologically and functionally by measurement of the range of knee movement and isokinetic testing. The evaluation also included the Lysholm knee scale. Follow-up studies took place at a mean of 8.1 years (5 to 15) post-operatively.

Normal patellar tracking without any recurrence of dislocation was obtained in ten out of 11 patients. Pain related to vigorous activity was reported by nine patients. Compared with the opposite normal side, the isokinetic tests revealed a statistically significant decrease in the maximal torque values for the affected quadriceps muscle (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004), but no difference between the knee flexors (for angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s) (p = 0.858 and p = 0.79).

The applied surgical technique generally prevents the recurrence of the disorder in children with habitual patellar dislocation and ligamentous laxity. Quadriceps muscle weakness can be expected to occur post-operatively,

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;96-B:129–33.

S. Kang M. Kam F. Miraj S-S. Park
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A small proportion of children with Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF) experience troubling limited or delayed recovery after operative treatment. We hypothesised that the fracture level relative to the isthmus of the humerus would affect the outcome.

We retrospectively reviewed 230 children who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) for their Gartland type III SCHFs between March 2003 and December 2012. There were 144 boys and 86 girls, with the mean age of six years (1.1 to 15.2). The clinico-radiological characteristics and surgical outcomes (recovery of the elbow range of movement, post-operative angulation, and the final Flynn grade) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was employed to identify prognostic factors that influenced outcome, including fracture level. Multivariate analysis revealed that a fracture below the humeral isthmus was significantly associated with poor prognosis in terms of the range of elbow movement (p < 0.001), angulation (p = 0.001) and Flynn grade (p = 0.003). Age over ten years was also a poor prognostic factor for recovery of the range of elbow movement (p = 0.027).

This is the first study demonstrating a subclassification system of Gartland III fractures with prognostic significance. This will guide surgeons in peri-operative planning and counselling as well as directing future research aimed at improving outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:134–40.

A. W. Hughes D. Clark W. Carlino O. Gosling R. F. Spencer
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Reported rates of dislocation in hip hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the treatment of intra-capsular fractures of the hip, range between 1% and 10%. HA is frequently performed through a direct lateral surgical approach. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution of the anterior capsule to the stability of a cemented HA through a direct lateral approach.

A total of five whole-body cadavers were thawed at room temperature, providing ten hip joints for investigation. A Thompson HA was cemented in place via a direct lateral approach. The cadavers were then positioned supine, both knee joints were disarticulated and a digital torque wrench was attached to the femur using a circular frame with three half pins. The wrench applied an external rotation force with the hip in extension to allow the hip to dislocate anteriorly. Each hip was dislocated twice; once with a capsular repair and once without repairing the capsule. Stratified sampling ensured the order in which this was performed was alternated for the paired hips on each cadaver.

Comparing peak torque force in hips with the capsule repaired and peak torque force in hips without repair of the capsule, revealed a significant difference between the ‘capsule repaired’ (mean 22.96 Nm, standard deviation (sd) 4.61) and the ‘capsule not repaired’ group (mean 5.6 Nm, sd 2.81) (p < 0.001). Capsular repair may help reduce the risk of hip dislocation following HA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:141–4.