header advert
The Bone & Joint Journal Logo

Receive monthly Table of Contents alerts from The Bone & Joint Journal

Comprehensive article alerts can be set up and managed through your account settings

View my account settings

Volume 81-B, Issue 2 March 1999

The Journal website Pages 189 - 189
Access Required
View article
Download PDF

GENES AND ORTHOPAEDICS Pages 190 - 192
Access Required
W. G. Cole
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
R. A. Dickson S. L. Weinstein
View article
Download PDF

Foot
Access Required
E. J. Luger M. Nissan A. Karpf E. L. Steinberg S. Dekel
View article
Download PDF

The longitudinal arch between the heel and the forefoot and the transverse arch between the first and fifth metatarsal heads, absorb shock, energy and force. A device to measure plantar pressure was used in 66 normal healthy subjects and in 294 patients with various types of foot disorder. Only 22 (3%) of a total of 720 feet, had a dynamic metatarsal arch during the stance phase of walking, and all had known abnormality.

Our findings show that there is no distal transverse metatarsal arch during the stance phase. This is important for the classification and description of disorders of the foot.


Access Required
M. S. Davies T. S. Saxby
View article
Download PDF

We carried out 12 arthroscopies of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in 11 patients over a five-year period. Their mean age was 30 years (15 to 58) and the mean duration of symptoms before surgery was eight months (1 to 24). Six patients had an injury to the joint; all had swelling and tenderness with a reduced range of movement. In six patients, radiographs revealed no abnormality.

Under general anaesthesia with a tourniquet the hallux is suspended by a large Chinese finger trap to distract the joint. Using a 1.9 mm 30° oblique arthroscope the MTP joint is inspected through dorsomedial and dorsolateral portals with a medial portal if necessary. All patients were found to have intra-articular pathology, which was treated using small instruments.

The mean follow-up was 19.3 months (6 to 62) and all patients had no or minimal pain, decreased swelling and an increased range of movement of the affected joint.


C.-L. Wang Y.-W. Shau T.-C. Hsu H.-C. Chen S.-H. Chien
View article
Download PDF

We compared the mechanical properties of normal and reconstructed heel pads in seven patients. Four had latissimus dorsi flaps and one each an anterior thigh flap, a local dorsalis pedis flap and a sural arterial flap.

The thickness of the heel pad was measured under serial incremental loads of 0.5 kg to a maximum of 3 kg and then relaxed sequentially. The load-displacement curve of the heel pad during a loading-unloading cycle was plotted and from this the unloaded heel-pad thickness (UHPT), compressibility index (CI), elastic modulus (Ep), and energy dissipation ratio (EDR) were calculated.

The EDR was significantly increased in the reconstructed heels (53.7 ± 18% v 23.4 ± 6.5%, p = 0.003) indicating that in them more energy is dissipated as heat. Insufficient functional capacity in the reconstructed heel pad can lead to the development of shock-induced discomfort and ulceration.


Wrist & Hand
Access Required
C. Bonnard D. J. Anastakis G. van Melle A. O. Narakas
View article
Download PDF

We have assessed the final strength of the deltoid in 121 patients who had repair of isolated or combined lesions of the axillary (circumflex) nerve and were available for statistical analysis. Successful or useful results were achieved in 85% after grafting of isolated lesions. The strength was statistically better when patients had grafting of the axillary nerve within 5.3 months from the time of injury. The dramatic decrease in the rate of success seen with longer delays suggests that surgery should be undertaken within three months of injury. A statistically significant downward trend of the rate of success was noted with increasing age. The force and level of injury to the shoulder play an important role in the type, combination and level of nerve damage and the incidence of associated rotator-cuff, vascular and other injuries to the upper limb. Management of isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve after injury to the shoulder needs to be thorough and systematic.


K. Hamada H. Fukuda T. Nakajima N. Yamada
View article
Download PDF

We reviewed 26 patients with 34 shoulders treated by the inferior capsular shift operation for inferior and multidirectional instability. The mean follow-up was 8.3 years. In total, 12 shoulders showed voluntary subluxation. Eight operations used an anterior and posterior approach, 11 were by the posterior route, and 15 shoulders had an anterior approach. In 30 shoulders (85%) the outcome was satisfactory and 20 (59%) scored good or excellent results on the Rowe system. Instability had recurred in nine shoulders (26%) from three months to three years after the operation. Six of the 12 shoulders with voluntary subluxation (50%) had recurrence, as against three of the other 22 (14%), a statistically significant difference. The operation is therefore not indicated for voluntary subluxation.

The 19 shoulders which had been assessed in 1987 at a mean of 3.5 years after surgery, were also reviewed in 1995 and found to have no significant changes in instability or Rowe score. This shows that the capsular shift appeared to have maintained its tension over an eight-year period. After the use of a posterior approach, 64% of the shoulders showed a posterolateral defect on radiographs of the humerus.


Access Required
A. T. Bremner-Smith A. J. Unwin W. W. Williams
View article
Download PDF

We obtained samples of spinal accessory nerve from patients undergoing radical surgery for tumours or nerve grafting in the neck. These were analysed by light and electron microscopy for the type of fibre. All contained fibres consistent with non-proprioceptive sensory function including pain.


Access Required
M. Ramesh B. Morrissey J. B. Healy S. Roy-Choudhury A. C. Macey
View article
Download PDF

Acute swelling of the hand is a common problem after trauma or surgery and is associated with both pain and loss of function. We describe a prospective study of 47 patients in which we assessed the effects of a pneumatic compression device (A-V impulse hand pump) on the swollen hand. The pump reduced swelling by increasing the velocity of venous return as demonstrated by Duplex scanning of the median cubital vein.

Continuous use of the pump for 48 hours gave a reduction of 78.6% in swelling of the injured hand compared with the opposite, uninjured side. Even when used intermittently, with the pump on for 12 hours out of 24, a statistically significant effect was seen.

There was a subjective reduction in pain and an objective improvement in function of the hand. Use of the pump resulted in a nearly normal hand by the time of discharge from hospital after, on average, 48 hours.


Spine
Access Required
F. Porchet J.-P. Vader T. Larequi-Lauber M. C. Costanza B. Burnand R. W. Dubois
View article
Download PDF

We have developed criteria to determine the appropriate indications for lumbar laminectomy, using the standard procedure developed at the RAND corporation and the University of California at Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA). A panel of five surgeons and four physicians individually assessed 1000 hypothetical cases of sciatica, back pain only, symptoms of spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, miscellaneous indications or the need for repeat laminectomy. For the first round each member of the panel used a scale ranging from 1 (extremely inappropriate) to 9 (extremely appropriate). After discussion and condensation of the results into three categories laminectomy was considered appropriate in 11% of the 1000 theoretical scenarios, equivocal in 26% and inappropriate in 63%. There was some variation between the six categories of malalignment, but full agreement in 64% of the hypothetical cases.

We applied these criteria retrospectively to the records of 196 patients who had had surgical treatment for herniated discs in one Swiss University hospital. We found that 48% of the operations were for appropriate indications, 29% for equivocal reasons and that 23% were inappropriate.

The RAND-UCLA method is a feasible, useful and coherent approach to the study of the indications for laminectomy and related procedures, providing a number of important insights. Our conclusions now require validation by carefully designed prospective clinical trials, such as those which are used for new medical techniques.


Y. Ishida K. Ohmori H. Inoue K. Suzuki
View article
Download PDF

We reviewed the radiographs of 325 unselected patients with defects in the pars interarticularis of L5 to study whether the incidence of vertebral slip in spondylolysis of L5 remained unchanged after the age of 20 years. MRI was also carried out on 111 of the patients to investigate the relationship between the shape of the transverse process of L5 and the degeneration of the discs adjacent to this level.

The incidence of spondylolisthesis increased with age from 17% in the second decade to 51% in the sixth. The transverse process was significantly more slender in patients with less degeneration at L4/5 and advanced degeneration at L5/S1 than in patients with advanced degeneration at L4/5 and less degeneration at L5/S1. Vertebral slip secondary to an isthmic defect of L5 after the age of 20 years was confirmed and the adjacent disc degeneration was significantly related to the vertical thickness of the transverse process of L5.


Children's Orthopaedics
Access Required
F. Lalonde J. Jarvis
View article
Download PDF

To determine the effect of cordotomy on the function of the bladder during surgical correction of congenital kyphosis in myelomeningocele, we reviewed 13 patients who had this procedure between 1981 and 1996.

The mean age of the patients at operation was 8.9 years (3.7 to 16) and the mean follow-up was 4.8 years (1.3 to 10.8). Bladder function before and after operation was assessed clinically and quantitatively by urodynamics.

The mean preoperative kyphosis was 117° (52 to 175) and decreased to 49° (1 to 89) immediately after surgery. At the latest follow-up, a mean correction of 52% had been achieved.

Only one patient showed deterioration in bladder function after operation. Eight out of the nine patients who had urodynamic assessment had improvement in bladder capacity and compliance, and five showed an increase in urethral pressure. One patient developed a spastic bladder and required subsequent surgical intervention.

Cordotomy, at or below the level of the kyphosis, allows excellent correction of the structural deformity.


Access Required
R. D. D. Duncan J. A. Fixsen
View article
Download PDF

Congenital convex pes valgus (congenital vertical talus) is a rare condition. We reviewed ten feet in seven patients who had had surgical correction. All had been operated on by the senior author (JF) and the same surgical technique was used throughout, incorporating transfer of the tibialis anterior to the neck of the talus. The mean age at surgery was 31 months and the mean follow-up was nine years (6 to 14). All patients completed a questionnaire and had clinical, radiological and photographic evaluation performed by an independent examiner.

None had required further surgery. All but one were satisfied with the result, and had no functional limitations. They all wore normal shoes. The mean ankle dorsiflexion was 17° and plantar flexion 21°. The mean arc of subtalar motion was 27°. All radiological parameters measured were within the normal range, although irregularity of the talonavicular joint was common. No avascular necrosis of the body of the talus was seen. We conclude that the medium-term results of this procedure are very satisfactory.


R. W. Paton M. S. Srinivasan B. Shah S. Hollis
View article
Download PDF

Between May 1992 and April 1997, there were 20 452 births in the Blackburn District. In the same period 1107 infants with hip ‘at-risk’ factors were screened prospectively by ultrasound. We recorded the presence of dislocation and dysplasia detected under the age of six months using Graf’s alpha angle. Early dislocation was present in 36 hips (34 dislocatable and 2 irreducible). Of the 36 unstable hips, 30 (83%) were referred as being Ortolani-positive or unstable; 25 (69%) of these had at least one of the risk factors. Only 11 (31%) were identified from the ‘at-risk’ screening programme alone (0.54 per 1000 live births). Eight cases of ‘late’ dislocation presented after the age of six months (0.39 per 1000 live births). The overall rate of dislocation was 2.2 per 1000 live births.

Only 31% of the dislocated hips belonged to a major ‘at-risk’ group. Statistical analysis confirmed that the risk factors had a relatively poor predictive value if used as a screening test for dislocation. In infants referred for doubtful clinical instability, one dislocation was detected for every 11 infants screened (95% confidence interval (CI) 8 to 17) whereas in infants referred because of the presence of any of the major ‘at-risk’ factors the rate was one in 75 (95% CI 42 to 149).

Routine ultrasound screening of the ‘at-risk’ groups on their own is of little value in significantly reducing the rate of ‘late’ dislocation in DDH, but screening clinically unstable hips alone or associated with ‘at-risk’ factors has a high rate of detection.


P. N. Smith R. S. M. Ling R. Taylor
View article
Download PDF

We have studied the influence of weight-bearing on the measurement of wear of the polyethylene acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty using two techniques. The measured vertical wear was significantly greater when radiographs were taken weight-bearing rather than with the patient supine (p = 0.001, method 1; p = 0.007, method 2). Calculations of rates of linear wear of the acetabular component were significantly underestimated (p < 0.05) when radiographs were taken supine. There are two reasons for this. First, a change in pelvic orientation when bearing weight ensures that the thinnest polyethylene is brought into relief, and secondly, the head of the femoral component assumes the position of maximal displacement along its wear path. Interpretation of previous studies on both linear and volumetric polyethylene wear in total hip arthroplasty should be reassessed in the light of these findings.


R. Biedermann M. Krismer B. Stöckl P. Mayrhofer E. Ornstein H. Franzén
View article
Download PDF

Several methods of measuring the migration of the femoral component after total hip replacement have been described, but they use different reference lines, and have differing accuracies, some unproven. Statistical comparison of different studies is rarely possible.

We report a study of the EBRA-FCA method (femoral component analysis using Einzel-Bild-Röntgen-Analyse) to determine its accuracy using three independent assessments, including a direct comparison with the results of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

The accuracy of EBRA-FCA was better than ±1.5 mm (95% percentile) with a Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for interobserver reliability of 0.84; a very good result.

The method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% compared with RSA for the detection of migration of over 1 mm. This is accurate enough to assess the stability of a prosthesis within a relatively limited period. The best reference line for downward migration is between the greater trochanter and the shoulder of the stem, as confirmed by two experimental analyses and a computer-assisted design.


M. Krismer R. Biedermann B. Stöckl M. Fischer R. Bauer C. Haid
View article
Download PDF

We report the ten-year results for three designs of stem in 240 total hip replacements, for which subsidence had been measured on plain radiographs at regular intervals. Accurate migration patterns could be determined by the method of Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis (EBRA-FCA) for 158 hips (66%).

Of these, 108 stems (68%) remained stable throughout, and five (3%) started to migrate after a median of 54 months. Initial migration of at least 1 mm was seen in 45 stems (29%) during the first two years, but these then became stable. We revised 17 stems for aseptic loosening, and 12 for other reasons. Revision for aseptic loosening could be predicted by EBRA-FCA with a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 80%, and an accuracy of 79% by the use of a threshold of subsidence of 1.5 mm during the first two years. Similar observations over a five-year period allowed the long-term outcome to be predicted with an accuracy of 91%.

We discuss the importance of four different patterns of subsidence and confirm that the early measurement of migration by a reasonably accurate method can help to predict long-term outcome. Such methods should be used to evaluate new and modified designs of prosthesis.


Access Required
D. Reynolds J. Lucas K. Klaue
View article
Download PDF

We describe a little-known variety of hip dysplasia, termed ‘acetabular retroversion’, in which the alignment of the mouth of the acetabulum does not face the normal anterolateral direction, but inclines more posterolaterally.

The condition may be part of a complex dysplasia or a single entity. Other than its retroversion, the acetabulum is sited normally on the side wall of the pelvis, and its articular surface is of normal extent and configuration. The retroverted orientation may give rise to problems of impingement between the femoral neck and anterior acetabular edge.

We define the clinical and radiological parameters and discuss pathological changes which may occur in the untreated condition. A technique of management is proposed.


D. G. Southwell J. E. Bechtold W. D. Lew A. H. Schmidt
View article
Download PDF

Visualisation of periacetabular osteolysis by standard anteroposterior (AP) radiographs underestimates the extent of bone loss around a metal-backed acetabular component. We have assessed the effectiveness of standard radiological views in depicting periacetabular osteolysis, and recommend additional projections which make these lesions more visible. This was accomplished using a computerised simulation of radiological views and a radiological analysis of simulated defects placed at regular intervals around the perimeter of a cadaver acetabulum. The AP view alone showed only 38% of the defects over all of the surface of the cup and failed to depict a 3 mm lesion over 83% of the cup. When combined with the AP view, additional 45° obturator-oblique and iliac-oblique projections increased the depiction, showing 81% of the defects. The addition of the 60° obturator-oblique view further improved the visualisation of posterior defects, increasing the rate of detection to 94%. Based on this analysis, we recommend using at least three radiographic views when assessing the presence and extent of acetabular osteolysis.


Knee
Access Required
Y.-H. Kim S.-H. Cho J.-S. Kim
View article
Download PDF

Between June 1993 and December 1994, we performed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on 27 knees in 24 patients with spontaneous bony ankylosis in severe flexion. The mean age at operation was 43.5 years (30 to 60). No patient had preoperative pain. Three were unable to walk and 21 could manage less than five blocks. The mean duration of the ankylosis was 18.7 years (13 to 25) and its mean position was 105° flexion (75 to 135).

The preoperative Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score of 60 points was improved to 87 at the final follow-up three to five years later. All knees were free from pain. The mean range of active flexion in 24 knees was 97° (78 to 115) and the mean arc of movement 91° (78 to 98). The mean fixed flexion deformity was 6° (0 to 25) and the extension lag 8° (0 to 25). Angular deformity was corrected to between 0° and 10° of valgus. Four patients were able to walk one block and 20 five to seven blocks. Thirteen knees (48%) showed some necrosis at the skin edge; one knee required arthrodesis and another resection arthroplasty. One had a recurrence of tuberculous infection requiring arthrodesis. One patient had a rupture of the quadriceps tendon. To date no prosthesis has required revision for loosening. Radiolucency of 1 mm or less about the tibial prosthesis was observed at follow-up in four of the 24 knees.

Our results have shown that one-stage TKA and skeletal traction after operation can achieve correction of severe flexion deformity of the knee with marked improvement in the function and quality of life.


M. A. Ritter M. Koehler E. M. Keating P. M. Faris J. B. Meding
View article
Download PDF

The postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular injections of bupivacaine and/or morphine were examined prospectively in 437 patients who had total knee replacement for osteoarthritis. They were divided randomly into four groups. Group I received 10 mg of morphine (1 ml) and 9 ml of saline, group II received 10 ml of bupivacaine (2.5 mg/ml), group III received 10 ml of saline, and group IV received 10 mg of morphine (1 ml) and 9 ml of bupivacaine (2.5 mg/ml). All analgesics administered in the first 24 hours after operation were recorded. The patients rated their pain on the McGill-Melzack scale at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours. No significant differences were found between any of the groups in the use of Demoral and/or Toradol in 24 hours, the length of stay in hospital or the pain rating at 1, 6, 12 or 24 hours. Patients in groups I and IV, whose injections included morphine, used significantly more morphine in the first 24 postoperative hours than did groups II or III.


Access Required
A. Kumar D. R. Bickerstaff J. S. Grimwood S. K. Suvarna
View article
Download PDF

A 35-year-old man was seen with pain in the back of the knee. MRI showed a mass in the anterior cruciate ligament. Biopsy indicated mucoid degeneration. Arthroscopic resection of the ligament was carried out, with relief of symptoms.


V. R. Patel D. S. Elliott
View article
Download PDF

We describe a patient with a Mason type-III fracture of the head of the radius associated with traumatic dislocation of the elbow. The radial head was intact throughout its circumference despite being completely detached from the shaft and devoid of any soft-tissue attachments. Severe comminution of the radial neck prevented reconstruction by internal fixation and precluded prosthetic replacement of the head. The head was fixed to the shaft with a tricortical iliac-crest bone graft which replaced the neck. Two years later, the patient had a stable elbow with flexion from 10° to 130°. Radiologically, the head of the radius appeared to be viable and the bone graft had incorporated.


‘Floating pelvis’ Pages 309 - 311
Access Required
R. G. Levine C. P. Kauffman M. C. Reilly F. F. Behrens
View article
Download PDF

A patient is described with a ligamentous disruption at the L4/L5 level in association with bilateral, traumatic dislocations of the hip. The diagnostic evaluation, acute intervention, and definitive stabilisation are reported. The unstable spine posed a problem in treatment with regard to the timing and technique of the reduction of the hips.


Malunion in the lower limb Pages 312 - 316
Access Required
R. H. Wade A. M. R. New G. Tselentakis J. H. Kuiper A. Roberts J. B. Richardson
View article
Download PDF

Nomograms derived from mathematical analysis indicate that the level of malunion is the most important determinant of changes in the moment arm of the knee, the plane of the ankle and alterations in limb length. Testing in five patients undergoing reconstruction showed a mean error of postoperative limb length of 2.2 mm (sd 0.8 mm), knee moment arm of 4.7 mm (sd 3.3 mm) and ankle angle of 2.6° (sd 2.3°). These nomograms provide the information required when assessing whether a particular degree of angulation may be accepted.


A. Abudu A. M. Davies P. B. Pynsent D. C. Mangham R. M. Tillman S. R. Carter R. J. Grimer
View article
Download PDF

We studied the CT and MR scans, and the histology of 50 patients with primary Ewing’s sarcoma of bone to determine the association between the change in tumour volume and necrosis after chemotherapy, and to ascertain their influence on prognosis. The mean age of the patients was 17 years. The limbs were involved in 40 and the axial bones in ten. The volume of the tumour at diagnosis varied from 31 to 1790 ml.

There was a significant relationship between necrosis and the measured change in volume of the tumour after chemotherapy. Progression of the tumour despite chemotherapy was seen only in patients with necrosis of grades 4 to 6. Necrosis significantly influenced survival (p < 0.05), but the effect of change in volume was less significant.

Change in volume of the tumour is a good predictor of necrosis induced by chemotherapy. Necrosis is a strong prognostic factor in Ewing’s sarcoma.


A. J. Aboulafia D. K. Monson R. E. Kennon
View article
Download PDF

The systemic effects of diabetes mellitus are well recognised. The heart, kidney, central and peripheral nervous systems, and the distal parts of the limbs are often the site of end-organ damage resulting from ischaemia. Infarction of large muscle groups in the limb, not associated with gangrene, is uncommon. There have been few reported cases other than radiological descriptions of diabetic muscle infarcts. While previous reports have illustrated some of the clinical and radiological characteristics of this condition, the paucity of published cases makes it difficult to determine the most appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment.

During a five-year period we treated 14 patients with diabetes mellitus, aged from 32 to 59 years, who were referred to a musculoskeletal oncology service for suspected soft-tissue sarcoma, but were subsequently found to have a diabetic muscle infarct. Closed needle biopsy was performed in 13 without complications. In 12 patients, the symptoms resolved without surgical treatment.


T. Yamamoto E. F. DiCarlo P. G. Bullough
View article
Download PDF

In about 50% of cases, osteonecrosis of the femoral head is known to occupy more than one site. There is controversy as to whether a single focus may increase in size. We have reviewed 606 consecutive femoral heads which had been surgically removed for osteonecrosis. Extension of osteonecrosis was observed in only two (0.3%) and was confirmed histopathologically by the enlargement of the necrotic segment beyond the repair zone formed for the primary necrosis into the adjacent, previously uninvolved bone. In both cases, the necrotic regions were wedge-shaped and occupied over 80% of the femoral head.

It appears that an increase in size is extremely rare and that osteonecrosis is due to a single event. Our findings may be of value in assessing the use of joint-salvage procedures for osteonecrosis of the femoral head.


Access Required
S. H. Palmer C. L. M. H. Gibbons N. A. Athanasou
View article
Download PDF

We analysed the histological findings in 1146 osteoarthritic femoral heads which would have been considered suitable for bone-bank donation to determine whether pathological lesions, other than osteoarthritis, were present. We found that 91 femoral heads (8%) showed evidence of disease. The most common conditions noted were chondrocalcinosis (63 cases), avascular necrosis (13), osteomas (6) and malignant tumours (one case of low-grade chondrosarcoma and two of well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma). There were two with metabolic bone disease (Paget’s disease and hyperparathyroid bone disease) and four with inflammatory (rheumatoid-like) arthritis.

Our findings indicate that occult pathological conditions are common and it is recommended that histological examination of this regularly used source of bone allograft should be included as part of the screening protocol for bone-bank collection.


S. Sugihara A. D. van Ginkel T. U. Jiya B. J. van Royen P. J. van Diest P. I. J. M. Wuisman
View article
Download PDF

From November 1994 to March 1997, we harvested 137 grafts of the femoral head from 125 patients for donation during total hip arthroplasty according to the guidelines of the American Associations of Tissue Banks (AATB) and the European Association of Musculo-Skeletal transplantation (EAMST). In addition to the standards recommended by these authorities, we performed histopathological examination of a core biopsy of the retrieved bone allograft and of the synovium.

Of the 137 allografts, 48 (35.0%) fulfilled all criteria and were free for donation; 31 (22.6%) were not regarded as suitable for transplantation because the serological retests at six months were not yet complete and 58 (42.3%) were discarded because of incomplete data. Of those discarded, five showed abnormal histopathological findings; three were highly suspicious of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, one of monoclonal plasmacytosis and the other of non-specific inflammation of bone marrow. However, according to the standards of the AATB or EAMST they all met the criteria and were eligible for transplantation.

Our findings indicate that the incidence of abnormal histopathology in these retrieved allografts was 3.6%. Since it is essential to confirm the quality of donor bones in bone banking, we advise that histopathological screening of donor bone should be performed to exclude abnormal allografts.


A. J. Hamer I. Stockley R. A. Elson
View article
Download PDF

Secondary sterilisation of allograft bone by gamma irradiation is common, but the conditions under which it is performed vary between tissue banks. Some do so at room temperature, others while the bone is frozen. Bone is made brittle by irradiation because of the destruction of collagen alpha chains, probably mediated by free radicals generated from water molecules. Freezing reduces the mobility of water molecules and may therefore decrease the production of free radicals. We found that bone irradiated at −78°C was less brittle and had less collagen damage than when irradiated at room temperature. These findings may have implications for bone-banking.


Y. Ishii T. Tojo K. Terajima S. Terashima J. E. Bechtold
View article
Download PDF

We compared joint proprioception in 12 hips in 12 patients with hemiarthroplasty after fracture of the hip, in 12 hips in 11 patients with total hip arthroplasty because of osteoarthritis and in a control group of 12 age-matched patients with no clinical complaints. There was no significant difference (p = 0.05) in joint proprioception in any of the groups. There was no decrease in joint proprioception in the group with total hip arthroplasty compared with the hemiarthroplasty group or with the control group.

Other factors such as stretch receptors in the adjacent tendons and muscles may have a greater influence on proprioception in the hip than the intracapsular components.


P. Hernigou F. Beaujean J. C. Lambotte
View article
Download PDF

We have evaluated bone-marrow activity in the proximal femur of patients with corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis and compared it with that of patients with osteonecrosis related to sickle-cell disease and with a control group without osteonecrosis. Bone marrow was obtained by puncture of the femoral head outside the area of necrosis and in the intertrochanteric region. The activity of stromal cells was assessed by culturing fibroblast colony-forming units (FCFUs).

We found a decrease in the number of FCFUs outside the area of osteonecrosis in the upper end of the femur of patients with corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis compared with the other groups.

We suggest that glucocorticosteroids may also have an adverse effect on bone by decreasing the number of progenitors. The possible relevance of this finding to osteonecrosis is discussed.


P. V. Giannoudis R. M. Smith M. C. Bellamy J. F. Morrison R. A. Dickson P. J. Guillou
View article
Download PDF

It has been suggested that reamed intramedullary nailing of the femur should be avoided in some patients with multiple injuries. We have studied prospectively the effect of femoral reaming on the inflammatory process as implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple-organ failure (MOF). We studied changes in the levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) (proinflammatory cytokine), neutrophil CD11b (C3) receptor expression (activated neutrophil adhesion molecule), serum soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (s-ICAM-1), serum soluble E-selectin (the soluble products of endothelial adhesion molecules) and plasma elastase (neutrophil protease) in a series of patients with femoral fractures treated by nailing. We have also compared reamed nailing with unreamed nailing.

We found that the levels of serum IL-6 and elastase rose significantly during the nailing procedure indicating a measurable ‘second hit’. There was no clear response in leukocyte activation and no difference in the release of endothelial adhesion molecule markers. There was no significant difference between groups treated by reamed and unreamed nailing. Although clinically unremarkable, the one patient who died from ARDS was shown to be hyperstimulated after injury and again after nailing, suggesting the importance of an excessive inflammatory reaction in the pathogenesis of these serious problems.

Our findings have shown that there is a second hit associated with femoral nailing and suggest that the degree of the inflammatory reaction may be important in the pathogenesis of ARDS and MOF.


Access Required
N. Maffulli
View article
Download PDF

Obituary
ROLAND BARNES 1907 – 1998 Pages 366 - 367
Access Required
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
P. P. CASTELEYN
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
S. EHRENDORFER
View article
Download PDF

R. G. H. H. NELISSEN E. R. VALSTAR P. M. ROZING
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 368 - 368
Access Required
G. CINOTTI
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 368 - 368
Access Required
M. M. McQUEEN
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 369 - 370
Access Required
E. H. SCHEMITSCH
View article
Download PDF

J. PARVIZI M. H. ERETH D. G. LEWALLEN
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 369 - 369
Access Required
I. Önsten
View article
Download PDF

Authors’ reply Pages 370 - 371
Access Required
V. K. GAUTAM S. ANAND
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 370 - 370
Access Required
R. G. McCORMACK
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
J. F. CONNOLLY
View article
Download PDF

T. M. SUNIL
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
R. G. DESHMUKH
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 371 - 371
Access Required
J. A. FIXSEN
View article
Download PDF

N. KIELY P. MARSHALL
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 372 - 372
Access Required
R. D. NADEEM
View article
Download PDF

Femoral stem fixation Pages 372 - 372
Access Required
P. HARRINGTON
View article
Download PDF

Author’s Reply Pages 372 - 372
Access Required
G. SHEN
View article
Download PDF

S. EHRENDORFER
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 372 - 372
Access Required
C. S. RANAWAT
View article
Download PDF

N. Rushton
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
R. S. Maurice-Williams
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
J. R. Silver
View article
Download PDF

View article
Download PDF

Access Required
M. Laurence
View article
Download PDF

II piede nella pittura. Pages 374 - 374
Access Required
L. Klenerman
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
F. H. Moore
View article
Download PDF