header advert
The Bone & Joint Journal Logo

Receive monthly Table of Contents alerts from The Bone & Joint Journal

Comprehensive article alerts can be set up and managed through your account settings

View my account settings

Volume 79-B, Issue 2 March 1997

Access Required
R. Smith
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
F. H. Norman-Taylor R. N. Villar
View article
Download PDF

M. Taylor K. E. Tanner
View article
Download PDF

H. Pihlajamäki P. Myllynen O. Böstman
View article
Download PDF

We analysed the complications encountered in 102 consecutive patients who had posterolateral lumbosacral fusion performed with transpedicular screw and rod fixation for non-traumatic disorders after a minimum of two years. Of these, 40 had spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis, 42 a degenerative disorder, 14 instability after previous laminectomy and decompression, and six pain after nonunion of previous attempts at spinal fusion without internal fixation. There were 75 multilevel and 27 single-level fusions.

There were 76 individual complications in 48 patients, and none in the other 54. The complications seen were screw misplacement, coupling failure of the device, wound infection, nonunion, permanent neural injury, and loosening, bending and breakage of screws. Screw breakage or loosening was more common in patients with multilevel fusions (p < 0.001). Screws of 5 mm diameter should not be used for sacral fixation.

Forty-six patients had at least one further operation for one or several complications, including 20 fusion procedures for nonunion. The high incidence of complications is a disadvantage of this technically-demanding method.


Access Required
D. Y. Lee I. H. Choi C. Y. Chung T.-J. Cho J. C. Lee
View article
Download PDF

We classified fixed pelvic obliquity in patients after poliomyelitis into two major types according to the level of the pelvis relative to the short leg. Each type was then divided into four subtypes according to the direction and severity of the scoliosis.

In 46 patients with type-I deformity the pelvis was lower and in nine with type II it was higher on the short-leg side. Subtype-A deformity was a straight spine with a compensatory angulation at the lower lumbar level, mainly at L4-L5, subtype B was a mild scoliosis with the convexity to the short-leg side, subtype C was a mild scoliosis with the convexity opposite the short-leg side, and subtype D was a moderate to severe paralytic scoliosis with the convexity to the short-leg side in type I and to the opposite side in type II.

A combination of surgical procedures improved the obliquity in most patients. These included lumbodorsal fasciotomy, abductor fasciotomy and stabilisation of the hip by triple innominate osteotomy with or without transiliac lengthening. In patients with type ID or type IID appropriate spinal fusion was usually necessary.


M. J. McMaster
View article
Download PDF

Fifteen patients with ankylosing spondylitis who had developed a severe flexion deformity of the cervical spine which restricted their field of vision to their feet, were treated by an extension osteotomy at the C7/T1 level. The operation was performed under general anaesthesia with the patient in the prone position and wearing a halo-jacket. Three had internal fixation using a Luque rectangle and wiring. Their mean age was 48 years.

Before operation the mean cervical kyphosis was 23°; this was corrected to a mean of 31° of lordosis, a mean correction of 54°. All the patients were able to see straight ahead. One patient with normal neurology soon after operation became quadraparetic after one week; two others had unilateral palsy of the C8 root, which improved. There was subluxation at the site of osteotomy in four patients, and two of them developed a pseudarthrosis which required an anterior fusion.


Access Required
N. Boos R. Khazim R. W. Kerslake J. K. Webb H. Mehdian
View article
Download PDF

We describe an unusual injury to the upper cervical spine sustained during ejection from an aircraft. MRI provided an accurate and direct diagnosis of the severe ligamentous injuries.


Hand
Access Required
P. Burge G. Hoy P. Regan R. Milne
View article
Download PDF

We investigated the association of Dupuytren’s contracture with smoking and with alcohol by a case-control study in which 222 patients having an operation for this condition were matched for age, operation date and gender with control patients having other orthopaedic operations. Fifty of the cases were also each matched with four community controls. Data were collected by postal questionnaire.

Dupuytren’s contracture needing operation was strongly associated with current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 5.2)). The mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 16.7 pack-years for the cases compared with 12.0 pack-years for the controls (p = 0.016). Dupuytren’s contracture was also associated with an Alcohol Use Disorders Test score greater than 7 (adjusted odds ratio 1.9 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.57)). Mean weekly alcohol consumption was 7.3 units for cases and 5.4 units for controls (p = 0.016). The excess risk associated with alcohol did not appear to be due to a confounding effect of smoking, or vice versa.

Smoking increases the risk of developing Dupuytren’s contracture and may contribute to its prevalence in alcoholics, who tend to smoke heavily.


A. Sinha
View article
Download PDF

Debate continues about the origin of Dupuytren’s disease, which is usually in the palm but is seen elsewhere as ectopic lesions. We describe a young patient with Dupuytren’s disease extending proximal to the wrist crease in continuity with the palmar lesion.

Our findings support the view that the condition starts within the palmar connective tissue, but there is no palmar aponeurosis in the forearm and the proximal extension probably started in the deep layer of the superficial fascia.


Hip
Access Required
M. Sakamoto K. Shimizu S. Iida T. Akita H. Moriya Y. Nawata
View article
Download PDF

We performed a prospective study using MRI to evaluate early necrosis of the femoral head in 48 patients receiving high-dose corticosteroids for the treatment of various autoimmune-related disorders. The mean interval from the initiation of corticosteroid therapy to the first MRI examination was 2 months (0.5 to 6). MRI was repeated, and the mean period of follow-up was 31 months (24 to 69).

Abnormalities were found on MRI in 31 hips (32%). The initial changes showed well-demarcated, band-like zones which were seen at a mean of 3.6 months after initiation of treatment with steroids. In 14 of these hips (45%) there was a spontaneous reduction in the size of the lesions about one year after treatment had started, but there was no further change in size with a longer follow-up.


M. Matsui K. Masuhara K. Nakata T. Nishii N. Sugano T. Ochi
View article
Download PDF

We performed a modified, rotational acetabular osteotomy through a lateral transtrochanteric approach on 19 hips in 18 patients with a dysplastic joint. Six hips in six patients were operated on using the original approach. The mean age at operation was 28 years (14 to 54) and the mean period of follow-up 2.3 years (1 to 4.4).

Clinical evaluation using the Merle d’Aubigné score showed excellent or good results in 76%. Radiologically, 15 hips showed good acetabular remodelling and no signs of progressive osteoarthritis. In ten hips (40%) there was chondrolysis and collapse of the transferred acetabulum or both within one year, although this gave only mild pain in some patients. Factors which were significantly associated with the grade of outcome included age at the time of operation, the thickness of the transferred acetabulum, failure to use a bone graft, and a transtrochanteric approach.


M. de Kleuver M. A. P. Kooijman P. W. Pavlov R. P. H. Veth
View article
Download PDF

Reorientation of the acetabulum may be required in adolescents and young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. We have carried out a retrospective review of 51 hips after triple osteotomy with an average follow-up of ten years (8 to 15). Forty-eight hips (94%) were available for review and of these 39 (81%) were improved compared with before operation, 29 (60%) scoring good or excellent. Radiographic assessment showed improvement of the average centre-edge angle by 19°, the acetabular index by 12° and the anterior centre-edge angle by 26°. The degree of osteoarthritis progressed by one grade in ten hips (21%) over a period of ten years.

The satisfactory long-term clinical and radiographic results have encouraged us to continue this treatment for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia in these patients.


M. Leunig S. Werlen A. Ungersböck K. Ito R. Ganz
View article
Download PDF

Since January 1993 we have carried out MR arthrography on 23 patients with clinical symptoms and signs of abnormality of the acetabular labrum. Most of the patients were young adults. Such symptoms are known precursors of osteoarthritis, and therefore early and accurate evaluation is required.

We assessed the value of MR arthrography of the hip as a minimally-invasive diagnostic technique, in a prospective study and compared the findings with those at subsequent operations. All the patients complained of groin pain; 22 had a positive acetabular impingement test and 15 had radiological evidence of hip dysplasia.

In 21 of the patients, MR arthrography suggested either degeneration or a tear of the labrum or both. These findings were confirmed at operation in 18 patients, but there was no abnormality of the labrum in the other three. In two of the patients, MR arthrography erroneously suggested an intact labrum. Both MR arthrography and intraoperative inspection located lesions of the superior labrum most often, and these appeared slightly larger on arthrography than at operation.

We consider that MR arthrography is a promising diagnostic technique for the evaluation of abnormalities of the acetabular labrum.


T. Takahashi Y. Wada H. Yamamoto
View article
Download PDF

We measured the pressure distribution across the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using Fuji pressure-sensitive film (Prescale) in 51 patients (63 joints) comparing the results with those in 21 patients in whom Prescale was not used.

We classified the stress-distribution patterns in the tibiofemoral joints into four types: normal, varus-valgus instability, rotational malalignment, and a combination of instability and malrotation. The medial ligaments were then released according to the information obtained from these patterns. The conformity ratio of the contact area between repeated trials was 87.0%. Pressure distribution across the patellofemoral joints was also considered.

There was a significant decrease in the mean valgus stress angle in the Prescale group compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Release of the lateral retinaculum according to the results showed no significant differences in subluxation of the patella between the released group and the group which did not appear to need this procedure.


Access Required
D. F. G. Emery H. J. Clarke M. L. Grover
View article
Download PDF

Fifty-seven Stanmore Total Hip replacements were implanted between 1974 and 1986 in patients under the age of 50 years. We have reviewed the results in terms of survivorship and function, and assessed the reasons for revision.

Of the original 57, 22 (39%) have been revised at an average of 12 years from implantation, usually for aseptic loosening. Most of them had originally been implanted for osteoarthritis. Prostheses cemented with second-generation techniques have lasted significantly longer, and acetabular loosening emerged as a continuing problem. The overall survivorship was 90% at 10 years and 68% at 15 years.

Cemented hip replacement appears to be a viable option in younger patients and the Stanmore implant is comparable with other cemented prostheses in this age group.


N. Boos R. Krushell R. Ganz M. E. Müller
View article
Download PDF

We compared 74 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) carried out after previous proximal femoral osteotomy with a diagnosis-matched control group of 74 primary procedures performed during the same period. We report the perioperative results and the clinical and radiological outcome at five to ten years.

We anticipated a higher rate of complications in the group with previous osteotomy, but found no significant difference in the rate of perioperative complications (11% each) or in the septic (8% v 3%) and aseptic (4% each) revision rates. There was a trend towards improved survival in the group without previous osteotomy (90% v 82%), but this difference was not statistically significant. The only significant differences were a higher rate of trochanteric osteotomy (88% v 14%) and a longer operating time in the osteotomy group.

Our study indicates that THA after previous osteotomy is technically more demanding but not necessarily associated with a higher rate of complications. Furthermore, proximal femoral osteotomy does not jeopardise the clinical and radiological outcome of future THA enough to exclude the use of osteotomy as a therapeutic alternative in younger patients.


LOSS TO FOLLOW-UP MATTERS Pages 254 - 257
Access Required
D. W. Murray A. R. Britton C. J. K. Bulstrode
View article
Download PDF

Survival analysis of joint replacement relies on the assumption that surgical procedures in patients lost to follow-up have the same chance of failing as those in patients who continue to be assessed. Our study questions that assumption.

During the 16-year follow-up of 2268 patients who had received total hip replacements 142 (6%) were lost to follow-up. The cumulative loss at 15 years was 20%. At their last assessment, patients who subsequently failed to attend for follow-up had significantly worse pain, range of movement and opinion of their progress (p < 0.001) and significantly worse radiological features than a matched control group (p < 0.01).

Patients lost to follow-up have a worse outcome than those who continue to be assessed. Consequently, a survival analysis that does not take into account such patients is likely to give falsely optimistic results. It is therefore essential that vigorous attempts are made to minimise loss to follow-up, and that the rate of such loss is quoted. The overall loss to follow-up disguises the magnitude of the problem, which is best quantified by a cumulative rate of follow-up.

The reliability of a study can be assessed by a loss-to-follow-up quotient, calculated by the number of failures: the lower the quotient the more reliable the data. Ideally, the quotient should be less than 1.


K. Nakata K. Ohzono K. Masuhara M. Matsui K. Hiroshima T. Ochi
View article
Download PDF

We have reviewed 65 bipolar arthroplasties of the hip in 55 patients with osteoarthritis secondary to dysplasia. The mean age at operation was 56 years (42 to 79) and the mean period of follow-up was 7.2 years (5.0 to 13.0).

The average Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score before operation was 10.3 and at final follow-up 15.0. There were excellent or good results in 42 hips (65%).

Migration of the outer head was observed in 50 hips (77%), most often in the group with a centre-edge angle of less than 0°, an acetabular head index of less than 60%, coverage of the outer head by the original acetabulum of less than +10° and after bone grafting of the acetabulum. This migration was progressive in 31 (62%) of the 50 hips, with massive osteolysis of the acetabulum in eight. The extent and progression of migration were closely associated with this osteolysis. Four hips required revision for extensive migration of the outer head with destruction of the acetabulum or severe acetabular osteolysis, and nine hips are awaiting revision for failure of the bipolar prosthetic head. The overall failure rate was 18%.

We report major problems after bipolar hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia with progressive migration of the outer head and massive acetabular osteolysis at five years or more after operation.


J. Barwell G. Anderson A. Hassan I. Rawlings
View article
Download PDF

We studied the effects of the timing of tourniquet release in 88 patients randomly allocated for release after wound closure and bandaging (group A), or before the quadriceps layer had been closed allowing control of bleeding before suture (group B). The groups were similar in mean age, weight, gender, preoperative knee score, radiographic grading, and prosthesis implanted.

Patients in group B had less postoperative pain, achieved earlier straight-leg raising, and had fewer wound complications. Five patients in group A had to return to theatre, three for manipulation under anaesthesia, one for secondary closure of wound dehiscence, and one for drainage of a haematoma. The last patient later developed a deep infection, which was treated by a two-stage revision. There were no significant differences between the two groups in operating time, or the decrease in haemoglobin concentration at 48 hours postoperatively.

Some of the adverse effects of the use of a tourniquet for knee surgery can be significantly reduced by early tourniquet release, with haemostasis before the quadriceps mechanism and the wound are closed.


P. Abraham D. Carter J. R. Millot G. Leftheriotis L. Pidhorz J. L. Saumet
View article
Download PDF

We studied the time course of micro-embolism by recording high intensity transient signals (HITS) on Doppler venous blood flow studies during a 7-day period in 57 of 63 consecutive patients after hip or knee replacement.

No HITS were found before surgery, or in the non-operated leg after surgery. In the operated leg, the median number of HITS per minute showed an exponential decrease with time; a 50% reduction in the number of HITS took 72 minutes. Regardless of the duration and severity of HITS, we found no clinically apparent embolic event. Colour Doppler imaging at days 8 to 10 after operation showed a deep venous thrombosis in 17% of our patients with one thrombosis of the long saphenous vein. The presence or severity of HITS did not predict the venous thrombi. Although we found no pulmonary complications, we detected micro-emboli over a longer period after surgery than is usually reported. Spectral analysis of the Doppler venous signal is a repeatable and non-invasive monitoring technique in the post-surgical period. We failed to prove a correlation between deep venous thrombi and micro-emboli detected by this method.


D. R. Marsh S. Shah J. Elliott N. Kurdy
View article
Download PDF

We have reviewed a series of 56 consecutive patients treated by the Ilizarov circular fixator for various combinations of nonunion, malunion and infection of fractures. We used segmental excision, distraction osteogenesis and gradual correction of the deformity as appropriate.

Treatment was effective in eliminating 40 out of 46 nonunions and all 22 infections. There were two cases of refracture some months after removal of the frame, both of which healed securely in a second frame. Correction of malunion was good in the coronal plane but there was a tendency to anterior angulation, often occurring in the regenerate bone rather than at the original fracture site, after removal of the frame. This was associated with very slow maturation of regenerate bone in some patients, occurring largely, but not exclusively, in those who smoked heavily.

Patients expressed high levels of satisfaction with the outcome, despite relatively modest improvements in pain and function, presumably because their longstanding and intractable nonunion had been treated. None the less, the degree of satisfaction correlated strongly with the degree of improvement in pain and function.

We emphasise the importance of a multidisciplinary team in the assessment and support of patients undergoing long and demanding treatment. The Ilizarov method is valuable, but research is needed to overcome the problems of delayed maturation of the regenerate and slow or insecure healing of the docking site.


Access Required
C. Niek van Dijk R. A. W. Verhagen J. L. Tol
View article
Download PDF

From 1990 to 1994 we undertook arthroscopy of the ankle on 34 consecutive patients with residual complaints following fracture. Two groups were compared prospectively. Group I comprised 18 patients with complaints which could be attributed clinically to anterior bony or soft-tissue impingement. In group II the complaints of the 16 patients were more diffuse and despite extensive investigation the definitive diagnosis was not clear before arthroscopy. At the time of the fracture, some osteophytes were already present in 41% of the patients. These were related to previous supination trauma and participation in soccer.

Arthroscopic treatment consisted of removal of the anteriorly located osteophytes and/or scar tissue. After two years, group I showed a significantly better score for patient satisfaction (p = 0.02). There were good or excellent results in group I in 76% and group II in 43%.

Patients with residual complaints after an ankle fracture and clinical signs of anterior impingement may benefit from arthroscopic surgery. The place for diagnostic ankle arthroscopy is limited.


P. Hernigou P. Besnard
View article
Download PDF

Plain radiographs show only two dimensions of a three-dimensional object. On anteroposterior and lateral radiographs an implant may appear to be safely within the head of the femur although surface penetration has occurred.

We have attempted to identify this complication in the treatment of fractures of the femoral neck and have analysed the position of a screw or pin in the femoral head and neck on the basis of orthogonal frontal and lateral radiographs. A retrospective analysis of 60 cases of osteosynthesis of fractures of the femoral neck confirmed the risk of non-recognition of articular penetration or breaking of the cortex of the neck during surgery.

Unrecognised screw penetration of the hip was observed in 8% and of the posterior part of the neck in 10%. The risk differs according to the type of fracture: it is greater in the coxa valga produced by Garden-I fractures of the femoral neck.


D. Ring J. B. Jupiter R. A. Sanders J. Quintero V. M. Santoro R. Ganz Rene K. Marti
View article
Download PDF

We have treated 42 consecutive complex ununited fractures of the femoral shaft by wave-plate osteosynthesis at five different medical centres. There were 13 with previous infection, 12 with segmental cortical defects, and 3 were pathological fractures. In 39 cases there had been previous internal fixation and 21 patients had had more than one earlier operation.

Union was achieved in 41 patients at an average of six months, although three had required a second bone graft. Two patients had recurrence of infection and in one this resulted in the persistence of nonunion. There were no failures of the implant. All 41 patients with union are now fully weight-bearing, but four have a leg-length discrepancy, one has axial malalignment, and nine have residual stiffness of the knee. These results are surprisingly good, despite the complexity of the initial problem, and appear to confirm the biological and mechanical advantages of the wave plate over the conventional plate for such cases.


H. Resch P. Povacz R. Fröhlich M. Wambacher
View article
Download PDF

Untreated 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus have a poor functional outcome. Open operation increases the risk of avascular necrosis and percutaneous reduction and fixation may be preferable.

We report 27 patients, 9 with 3-part and 18 with 4-part fractures, treated by percutaneous reduction and screw fixation. Thirteen of the 4-part fractures were of the valgus type with no significant lateral displacement of the articular segment, and five showed significant shift. Instruments were introduced into the fracture through small incisions so that the fragments could be manoeuvred under the control of an image intensifier, taking advantage of ligamentotaxis as far as possible. A good reduction was achieved in most cases.

The average follow-up was 24 months (18 to 47). All the 3-part fractures showed good to very good functional results, with an average Constant score of 91% (84% to 100%), and no signs of avascular necrosis. Good radiological results were achieved in 4-part fractures when impacted in valgus except for one patient with partial avascular necrosis of the head. In those with lateral displacement of the head, revision to a prosthesis was required in one patient because of avascular necrosis and in another because of secondary redisplacement of the fracture. Avascular necrosis was seen in 11% of 4-part fractures. The average Constant score in patients with 4-part fractures who did not need further operation was 87% (75% to 100%).


Access Required
M. I. Boyer T. S. Axelrod
View article
Download PDF

We describe a new surgical treatment of atrophic nonunion of the clavicle. The nonunion is excised by cuts at 45° to the long axis and repair uses 3.5 mm pelvic reconstruction or dynamic compression plates, with a lag screw to provide interfragmentary compression. The site is grafted with cancellous bone.

We have been successful in all seven patients, with early return to normal function. The consequent narrowing of the shoulder girdle is fully acceptable for appearance and function.


Access Required
E. Rath O. Levy N. Liberman D. Atar
View article
Download PDF

Simultaneous bilateral posterior dislocation of the hip is very uncommon and most cases are caused by road accidents. Simultaneous bilateral posterior dislocation of the hip due to convulsions is extremely rare.

We report the case of a man who was diagnosed late and operated on 15 weeks after the injury. We discuss the treatment of chronic dislocation of the hip and review the literature.


Children's Orthopaedics
Access Required
M. F. Macnicol M. S. Gupta
View article
Download PDF

A technique for epiphysiodesis using a cannulated tubesaw has been developed to combine the precision of the original Phemister method with newer percutaneous methods. The approach is unilateral, and requires minimal access. Reinsertion of the removed core of bone reduces haemorrhage from the defect and augments arrest of the growth plate.

In 35 patients treated by this method predicted discrepancies of 2 to 4.5 cm were reliably reduced to 0.7 ± 0.6 cm, with no serious complications. The timing of surgery is critical, and relies upon careful monitoring of the pattern of discrepancy over several years, using clinical and radiographic measurements. Undercorrection of the disparity in three patients was the direct result of late referral.


S. D. Rogers D. W. Howie S. E. Graves M. J. Pearcy D. R. Haynes
View article
Download PDF

Our aim was to determine whether in vitro studies would detect differences in the cellular response to wear particles of two titanium alloys commonly used in the manufacture of joint replacement prostheses. Particles were of the order of 1 μm in diameter representative of those found adjacent to failed prostheses.

Exposure of human monocytes to titanium 6-aluminium 4- vanadium (TiAlV) at concentrations of 4 x 107 particles/ml produced a mean prostaglandin E2 release of 2627.6 pM; this was significantly higher than the 317.4 pM induced by titanium 6-aluminium 7-niobium alloy (TiAlNb) particles (p = 0.006). Commercially-pure titanium particles induced a release of 347.8 pM. In addition, TiAlV stimulated significantly more release of the other cell mediators, interleukin-1, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6. At lower concentrations of particles there was less mediator release and less obvious differences between materials. None of the materials caused significant toxicity.

The levels of inflammatory mediators released by phagocytic cells in response to wear particles may influence the amount of periprosthetic bone loss. Our findings have shown that in vitro studies can detect differences in cellular response induced by particles of similar titanium alloys in common clinical use, although in vivo studies have shown little difference. While in vitro studies should not be used as the only form of assessment, they must be considered when assessing the relative biocompatibility of different implant materials.


W. Brodner P. Bitzan V. Meisinger A. Kaider F. Gottsauner-Wolf R. Kotz
View article
Download PDF

We determined serum cobalt levels in 55 patients by atomic absorption spectrophotometry before and after implantation of uncemented total hip arthroplasties. In a randomised, prospective trial 27 wrought Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.2C metal-on-metal articulations were compared with 28 ceramic-on-polyethylene hips which did not contain cobalt. Other sources of iatrogenic cobalt loading were excluded.

The metal-on-metal group produced detectable serum cobalt levels (median 1.1 μg/l after one year) which were significantly different (p < 0.0001) from those of the ceramic-on-polyethylene control group (median below detection limit of 0.3 μg/l after one year). Our findings indicate that metal-on-metal bearings generate some systemic release of cobalt.


R. P. Katz J. J. Callaghan P. M. Sullivan R. C. Johnston
View article
Download PDF

We performed 83 consecutive cemented revision total hip arthroplasties in 77 patients between 1977 and 1983 using improved cementing techniques. One patient (two hips) was lost to follow-up. The remaining 76 patients (81 hips) had an average age at revision of 63.7 years (23 to 89).

At the final follow-up 18 hips (22%) had had a reoperation, two (2.5%) for sepsis, three (4%) for dislocation and 13 (16%) for aseptic loosening. The incidence of rerevision for aseptic femoral loosening was 5.4% and for aseptic acetabular loosening 16%. These results confirm that cemented femoral revision is a durable option in revision hip surgery when improved cementing techniques are used, but that cemented acetabular revision is unsatisfactory.


Access Required
A. R. Poynton S. M. Javadpour P. J. Finegan M. O’Brien
View article
Download PDF

The meniscofemoral ligaments (MFL) of the knee have both functional and clinical importance, but have been poorly described. We examined 42 human cadaver knees: there was at least one MFL in every joint and both ligaments were present in 27. The anterior MFL was present in the knees in all 18 males and in 17 of the 24 females. The posterior MFL was present in 16 males and 22 females. Measurement of the ligaments showed that they were of significant size. The mean midpoint width for the anterior MFL was 5.09 ± 1.41 mm in males and 2.99 ± 1.29 mm in females. The mean width of the posterior MFL was 5.48 ± 2.13 mm in males and 3.79 ± 2.56 mm in females. The average length of the anterior MFL was 27.09 ± 2.15 mm in males and 24.38 ± 3.39 mm in females, and the posterior MFL was 31.13 ± 2.54 mm and 27.59 ± 3.74 mm, respectively. There were anatomical variations in 16 (38%) knees (62.5% female, 37.5% male), more commonly in the posterior ligament.

We conclude that the meniscofemoral ligaments are anatomically and probably functionally important structures in the human knee.


Access Required
A. Kusaba Y. Kuroki
View article
Download PDF

We retrieved 159 femoral heads at revision surgery to determine changes in surface configuration. Macroscopic wear of the head was observed in three bipolar hip prostheses as a result of three-body wear. There was a considerable change in surface roughness in the internal articulation of bipolar hip prostheses. Roughness in alumina heads was almost the same as that in new cobalt-chromium heads. The annual linear wear rate of polyethylene cups with alumina heads was less than that of cups with cobalt-chromium alloy heads. Polyethylene wear was increased in the prostheses which had increased roughness of the head.


Obituary
Access Required
Philip Fulford Robert B. Salter David L. Evans
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 339 - 339
Access Required
K. DALY J. A. FIXSEN
View article
Download PDF

R. L. WILLIAMS F. S. HADDAD
View article
Download PDF

J. M. WILKINSON B. W. SCOTT M. J. BELL
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 340 - 341
Access Required
M. J. ALLEN
View article
Download PDF

M. KARAHAN T. ESEMENLI
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 340 - 340
Access Required
A. M. PORT
View article
Download PDF

Authors’ reply Pages 341 - 341
Access Required
M. LEUNIG R. HERTEL
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
R. M. DODENHOFF
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
K. S. EYRES
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
A. ÖZNUR G. KARAKURUM A. M. TOKGÖZOGLU
View article
Download PDF

Authors’ reply Pages 341 - 341
Access Required
M. LEUNIG R. HERTEL
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 342 - 342
Access Required
G. WALCH
View article
Download PDF

M. A. R. FREEMAN
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 342 - 342
Access Required
T. TERJESEN
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
R. M. DODENHOFF
View article
Download PDF

Author’s reply Pages 343 - 344
Access Required
N. M. P. CLARKE
View article
Download PDF

R. KOHLER
View article
Download PDF

C.S.B. Galasko
View article
Download PDF

Roger Smith
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
Ben Taylor
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
J. Mark H. Paterson
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
M. Laurence
View article
Download PDF

Access Required
David L. Hamblen
View article
Download PDF