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Volume 105-B, Issue 10 October 2023

Editorial
The power of the media Pages 1031 - 1032
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Annotation
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Fabio Mancino Ayman Gabr Ricci Plastow Fares S. Haddad

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is frequently injured in elite athletes, with females up to eight times more likely to suffer an ACL tear than males. Biomechanical and hormonal factors have been thoroughly investigated; however, there remain unknown factors that need investigation. The mechanism of injury differs between males and females, and anatomical differences contribute significantly to the increased risk in females. Hormonal factors, both endogenous and exogenous, play a role in ACL laxity and may modify the risk of injury. However, data are still limited, and research involving oral contraceptives is potentially associated with methodological and ethical problems. Such characteristics can also influence the outcome after ACL reconstruction, with higher failure rates in females linked to a smaller diameter of the graft, especially in athletes aged < 21 years. The addition of a lateral extra-articular tenodesis can improve the outcomes after ACL reconstruction and reduce the risk of failure, and it should be routinely considered in young elite athletes. Sex-specific environmental differences can also contribute to the increased risk of injury, with more limited access to and availablility of advanced training facilities for female athletes. In addition, football kits are designed for male players, and increased attention should be focused on improving the quality of pitches, as female leagues usually play the day after male leagues. The kit, including boots, the length of studs, and the footballs themselves, should be tailored to the needs and body shapes of female athletes. Specific physiotherapy programmes and training protocols have yielded remarkable results in reducing the risk of injury, and these should be extended to school-age athletes. Finally, psychological factors should not be overlooked, with females’ greater fear of re-injury and lack of confidence in their knee compromising their return to sport after ACL injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors should be recognized and addressed to optimize the training programmes which are designed to prevent injury, and improve our understanding of these injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(10):1033–1037.


Systematic Review
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Thomas J. Walton Daniel Huntley Sarah L. Whitehouse Jennifer Davies Matthew J. Wilson Matthew J. W. Hubble Jonathan R. Howell A. M. Kassam

Aims

The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the evidence for the use of intraoperative cell salvage in patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty, and specifically to analyze the available data in order to quantify any associated reduction in the use of allogenic blood transfusion, and the volume which is used.

Methods

An electronic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library was completed from the date of their inception to 24 February 2022, using a search strategy and protocol created in conjunction with the PRISMA statement. Inclusion criteria were patients aged > 18 years who underwent revision hip arthroplasty when cell salvage was used. Studies in which pre-donated red blood cells were used were excluded. A meta-analysis was also performed using a random effects model with significance set at p = 0.05.


Thomas R. Turgeon Christiaan H. Righolt Colin D. Burnell Trevor C. Gascoyne David R. Hedden Eric R. Bohm

Aims

The primary aim of this trial was to compare the subsidence of two similar hydroxyapatite-coated titanium femoral components from different manufacturers. Secondary aims were to compare rotational migration (anteversion/retroversion and varus/valgus tilt) and patient-reported outcome measures between both femoral components.

Methods

Patients were randomized to receive one of the two femoral components (Avenir or Corail) during their primary total hip arthroplasty between August 2018 and September 2020. Radiostereometric analysis examinations at six, 12, and 24 months were used to assess the migration of each implanted femoral component compared to a baseline assessment. Patient-reported outcome measures were also recorded for these same timepoints. Overall, 50 patients were enrolled (62% male (n = 31), with a mean age of 65.7 years (SD 7.3), and mean BMI of 30.2 kg/m2 (SD 5.2)).


Joseph A. N. El-Sahoury Kristian Kjærgaard Ole Ovesen Christian Hofbauer Søren Overgaard Ming Ding

Aims

The primary outcome was investigating differences in wear, as measured by femoral head penetration, between cross-linked vitamin E-diffused polyethylene (vE-PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) acetabular component liners and between 32 and 36 mm head sizes at the ten-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included acetabular component migration and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) such as the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Harris Hip Score, and University of California, Los Angeles Activity Scale (UCLA).

Methods

A single-blinded, multi-arm, 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Patients were recruited between May 2009 and April 2011. Radiostereometric analyses (RSAs) were performed from baseline to ten years. Of the 220 eligible patients, 116 underwent randomization, and 82 remained at the ten-year follow-up. Eligible patients were randomized into one of four interventions: vE-PE acetabular liner with either 32 or 36 mm femoral head, and XLPE acetabular liner with either 32 or 36 mm femoral head. Parameters were otherwise identical except for acetabular liner material and femoral head size.


Richard J. Holleyman Simon S. Jameson Mike Reed R. M. D. Meek Vikas Khanduja Andrew Hamer Andrew Judge Tim Board

Aims

This study describes the variation in the annual volumes of revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) undertaken by consultant surgeons nationally, and the rate of accrual of RHA and corresponding primary hip arthroplasty (PHA) volume for new consultants entering practice.

Methods

National Joint Registry (NJR) data for England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Isle of Man were received for 84,816 RHAs and 818,979 PHAs recorded between April 2011 and December 2019. RHA data comprised all revision procedures, including first-time revisions of PHA and any subsequent re-revisions recorded in public and private healthcare organizations. Annual procedure volumes undertaken by the responsible consultant surgeon in the 12 months prior to every index procedure were determined. We identified a cohort of ‘new’ HA consultants who commenced practice from 2012 and describe their rate of accrual of PHA and RHA experience.


May Ee Png Matt Costa Agni Nickil Juul Achten Nicholas Peckham Mike R. Reed

Aims

To compare the cost-effectiveness of high-dose, dual-antibiotic cement versus single-antibiotic cement for the treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fractures in older adults.

Methods

Using data from a multicentre randomized controlled trial (World Hip Trauma Evaluation 8 (WHiTE-8)) in the UK, a within-trial economic evaluation was conducted. Resource usage was measured over 120 days post randomization, and cost-effectiveness was reported in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), gained from the UK NHS and personal social services (PSS) perspective in the base-case analysis. Methodological uncertainty was addressed using sensitivity analysis, while decision uncertainty was handled using confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves.


Nicolas Cance Cécile Batailler Jobe Shatrov Robin Canetti Elvire Servien Sébastien Lustig

Aims

Tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) facilitates surgical exposure and protects the extensor mechanism during revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the rates of bony union, complications, and reoperations following TTO during rTKA, to assess the functional outcomes of rTKA with TTO at two years’ minimum follow-up, and to identify the risk factors of failure.

Methods

Between January 2010 and September 2020, 695 rTKAs were performed and data were entered into a prospective database. Inclusion criteria were rTKAs with concomitant TTO, without extensor mechanism allograft, and a minimum of two years’ follow-up. A total of 135 rTKAs were included, with a mean age of 65 years (SD 9.0) and a mean BMI of 29.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.7). The most frequent indications for revision were infection (50%; 68/135), aseptic loosening (25%; 34/135), and stiffness (13%; 18/135). Patients had standardized follow-up at six weeks, three months, six months, and annually thereafter. Complications and revisions were evaluated at the last follow-up. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Knee Society Score (KSS) and range of motion.


David A. Kolin Peter K. Sculco Alejandro Gonzalez Della Valle Jose A. Rodriguez Michael P. Ast Brian P. Chalmers

Aims

Blood transfusion and postoperative anaemia are complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that are associated with substantial healthcare costs, morbidity, and mortality. There are few data from large datasets on the risk factors for these complications.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the records of TKA patients from a single tertiary care institution from February 2016 to December 2020. There were a total of 14,901 patients in this cohort with a mean age of 67.9 years (SD 9.2), and 5,575 patients (37.4%) were male. Outcomes included perioperative blood transfusion and postoperative anaemia, defined a priori as haemoglobin level < 10 g/dl measured on the first day postoperatively. In order to establish a preoperative haemoglobin cutoff, we investigated a preoperative haemoglobin level that would limit transfusion likelihood to ≤ 1% (13 g/dl) and postoperative anaemia likelihood to 4.1%. Risk factors were assessed through multivariable Poisson regression modelling with robust error variance.


Foot & Ankle
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Toby Jennison Obioha C. Ukoumunne Sallie Lamb Ian Sharpe Andrew J. Goldberg

Aims

When a total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) fails, it can be converted to a fusion or a revision arthroplasty. Despite the increasing numbers of TAAs being undertaken, there is little information in the literature about the management of patients undergoing fusion following a failed TAA. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the survival of fusions following a failed TAA using a large dataset from the National Joint Registry (NJR).

Methods

A data linkage study combined NJR and NHS Digital data. Failure of a TAA was defined as a fusion, revision to a further TAA, or amputation. Life tables and Kaplan-Meier graphs were used to record survival. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to compare the rates of failure.


Jensen K. Henry Isabel Shaffrey Mark Wishman Joaquín Palma Munita Jiaqi Zhu Elizabeth Cody Scott Ellis Jonathan Deland Constantine Demetracopoulos

Aims

The Vantage Total Ankle System is a fourth-generation low-profile fixed-bearing implant that has been available since 2016. We aimed to describe our early experience with this implant.

Methods

This is a single-centre retrospective review of patients who underwent primary total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) with a Vantage implant between November 2017 and February 2020, with a minimum of two years’ follow-up. Four surgeons contributed patients. The primary outcome was reoperation and revision rate of the Vantage implant at two years. Secondary outcomes included radiological alignment, peri-implant complications, and pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcomes.


Jin Cao Changgui Zhang Heqin Huang Chengchang Zhang Liu Yang Xiaojun Duan

Aims

Arthroscopic microfracture is a conventional form of treatment for patients with osteochondritis of the talus, involving an area of < 1.5 cm2. However, some patients have persistent pain and limitation of movement in the early postoperative period. No studies have investigated the combined treatment of microfracture and shortwave treatment in these patients. The aim of this prospective single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to compare the outcome in patients treated with arthroscopic microfracture combined with radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) and arthroscopic microfracture alone, in patients with ostechondritis of the talus.

Methods

Patients were randomly enrolled into two groups. At three weeks postoperatively, the rESWT group was given shockwave treatment, once every other day, for five treatments. In the control group the head of the device which delivered the treatment had no energy output. The two groups were evaluated before surgery and at six weeks and three, six and 12 months postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale. Secondary outcome measures included a visual analogue scale (VAS) score for pain and the area of bone marrow oedema of the talus as identified on sagittal fat suppression sequence MRI scans.


Oncology
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James E. Archer Govind S. Chauhan Varun Dewan Khabab Osman Calum Thomson Rajpal S. Nandra Robert U. Ashford Paul Cool Jonathan Stevenson

Aims

Most patients with advanced malignancy suffer bone metastases, which pose a significant challenge to orthopaedic services and burden to the health economy. This study aimed to assess adherence to the British Orthopaedic Oncology Society (BOOS)/British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) guidelines on patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the UK.

Methods

A prospective, multicentre, national collaborative audit was designed and delivered by a trainee-led collaborative group. Data were collected over three months (1 April 2021 to 30 June 2021) for all patients presenting with MBD. A data collection tool allowed investigators at each hospital to compare practice against guidelines. Data were collated and analyzed centrally to quantify compliance from 84 hospitals in the UK for a total of 1,137 patients who were eligible for inclusion.


Children's Orthopaedics
Paediatric hip ultrasound Pages 1123 - 1130
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Matthew Donnan Nathan Anderson Monsurul Hoq Leo Donnan

Aims

The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement in interpretation of the quality of the paediatric hip ultrasound examination, the reliability of geometric and morphological assessment, and the relationship between these measurements.

Methods

Four investigators evaluated 60 hip ultrasounds and assessed their quality based the standard plane of Graf et al. They measured geometric parameters, described the morphology of the hip, and assigned the Graf grade of dysplasia. They analyzed one self-selected image and one randomly selected image from the ultrasound series, and repeated the process four weeks later. The intra- and interobserver agreement, and correlations between various parameters were analyzed.


Corrigenda
Corrigenda Pages 1131 - 1131
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Arno A. Macken Arnela Haagmans-Suman Anneke Spekenbrink-Spooren Arthur van Noort Michel P. J. van den Bekerom Denise Eygendaal Geert A. Buijze

Corrigenda Pages 1132 - 1132
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Nick D. Clement Steven Galloway Y. Jenny Baron Karen Smith David J. Weir David J. Deehan